Pengaruh Lama Pemaparan Ozon Terhadap Kualitas Mikrobiologi dan Kandungan Nutrisi Susu Kambing Peranakan Ettawa

*Desy Galuh Kusumaningrum  -  Departemen Peternakan, Fakultas Peternakan dan Pertanian, Universitas Diponegoro, Semarang, Indonesia
Received: 19 Feb 2020; Revised: 6 Jun 2020; Accepted: 4 Sep 2020; Published: 1 Apr 2021; Available online: 28 Feb 2021.
DOI: View
Table and Figure
Type Research Results
  Download (119KB)    Indexing metadata
Cover letter
Type Research Instrument
  Download (13KB)    Indexing metadata
Open Access License URL:

Citation Format:

Susu kambing mengandung komponen gizi yang tinggi dan dibutuhkan oleh manusia, namun mempunyai sifat mudah rusak akibat cemaran bakteri sehingga dikenal sebagai perishable food. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengaplikasikan ozon dalam susu dengan tujuan untuk menganalisis total bakteri dalam susu, serta pengaruhnya terhadap komponen protein, lemak dan laktosa. Ozon dengan kadar 3 ppm digunakan dalam penelitian ini dan diaplikasikan pada susu dengan lama pemaparan 0, 3, 6, dan 9 menit. Pengamatan dilakukan pada akhir penelitian dan dianalisis dalam hal total bakteri, protein, lemak dan laktosa. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa jumlah bakteri dalam susu semakin menurun (p<0,01) seiring lamanya waktu pemaparan ozon. Penurunan bakteri mencapai 0,45; 0,95; dan 1,42 log CFU/ml masing-masing dengan lama ozonisasi 3, 6 dan 9 menit. Terdapat hubungan yang sangat kuat (r=0,92; R2= 0,99; p<0,0001) antara lama waktu pemaparan ozon dengan penurunan jumlah bakteri dalam susu yang mengikuti fungsi y= 7E+06e-0,364x. Tingkat lama pemaparan ozon tidak secara nyata mempengaruhi kadar protein susu, namun secara signifikan menyebabkan penurunan pada kadar lemak (p<0,01) dan laktosa susu (p<0,05) pada lama ozonisasi 6 menit. Kesimpulan dari penelitian ini bahwa ozon dapat digunakan untuk meningkatkan kualitas mikrobiologi susu segar dan menjaga kandungan nutrisi susu.

The Effects of Ozone Exposure Time on Microbiological Quality and Nutrient Contents of Ettawa Crossbred Goat Milk


Goat milk is known to have high nutritional components that plays an important role in human health. However, it has a short shelf-life and highly perishable. Milk is an excellent medium for the growth of microorganism, particularly bacterial pathogens that cause spoilage and disease in consumers. This research aims to apply ozone in milk, then to analyse bacterial count as well as their effects on protein, fat and lactose. Sample of raw milk were collected before and after ozone gas exposure at 3 ppm for 0, 3, 6 and 9 minutes. The assays were carried out using a randomized experimental design and the results were statistically evaluated by ANOVA. As results, bacterial counts in milk decreased (p<0.01) with the length of ozonation time. The decline in bacterial count reached 0.45; 0.95; and 1.42 log CFU/ml with 3, 6 and 9 minutes ozonation, respectively. There was a very strong relationship (r = 0.92; R2= 0.99; p<0.0001) between the length of time of ozone exposure and the decrease in the number of bacteria in milk with following equation y = 7E+06e-0,364x.The duration of ozone exposure did not affect much in milk protein, but significantly caused a decrease in milk fat (p<0.01) and lactose concentrations (p<0.05) at 6 minutes of ozonation. It can be concluded that, ozone could be used to improve the microbiological quality of fresh milk and maintain its nutrient content.

Note: This article has supplementary file(s).

Keywords: bakteri susu; nutrien susu; ozon; keamanan pangan; milk bacteria; nutrient content; ozone; food safety
Funding: Diponegoro University

Article Metrics:

  1. Amorim, E.O.C., Tribst, A.A.L., Augusto, P.E.D., Cristianini, M. 2013. Inactivation of E. coli and B. subtilis spores in ozonized cassava starch. Food Science and Technology 33(2):289-294. DOI: 10.1590/S0101-20612013005000043
  2. Brodowska, A.J., Nowak, A., Šmigielski, K. 2018. Ozone in the food industry: Principles of ozone treatment, mechanisms of action, and applications: An overview. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 58(13):2176-2201. DOI: 10.1080/10408398.2017.1308313
  3. Cavalcante, D.A., Júnior Leite, B.R.C., Tribst, A.A.L., Cristianini, M. 2013. Improvement of the raw milk microbiology quality by ozone treatment. International Food Research Journal 20(4):2017-2021. DOI: 10.1111/1471-0307.12302
  4. Clark, S., García, M.B.M. 2017. A 100-Year Review: Advances in goat milk research. Journal of Dairy Science 100:10026-10044. DOI: 10.3168/jds.2017-13287
  5. Dhanashekar, R., Akkinepalli, S., Nellutla, A. 2012. Milk-borne infections: An analysis of their potential effect on the milk industry. Germs 2(3):101-109. DOI: 10.11599/germs.2012.1020
  6. Dissanayake M., Vasiljevic T. 2009. Functional properties of whey proteins affected by heat treatment and hydrodynamic high-pressure shearing. Journal of Dairy Science 92 (4):1387-1397. DOI: 10.3168/jds.2008-1791
  7. Fagnani, R., Eleodoro, J.I., Zanon, E.O. 2019. Milk-borne infections awareness and the health status of consumers: An on-line survey. International Dairy Journal 96:85-92. DOI: 10.1016/j.idairyj.2019.04.013
  8. Fontes, B., Heimbecker, A.M.C., Brito, G.D.S., Costa, S.F., van der Heijden, M., Levin, A.S., Rasslan, S. 2012. Effects of low-dose gaseous ozone on pathogenic bacteria. Infectious Diseases 12(358):1-6. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-12-358
  9. Harjanti, D.W., Ciptaningtyas, R., Wahyono, F., Setiatin, E.T. 2018. Isolation and identification of bacterial pathogen from mastitis milk in Central Java Indonesia. IOP Conf. Series:Earth and Environmental Science 102:012076. DOI: 10.1088/1755-1315/102/1/012076
  10. Harjanti, D.W., Wahyono, F., Afifah, D.N. 2019. Milk production and milk quality of sub-clinical mastitis cows feed with different supplementation of herbal diet. IOP Conf. Series:Earth and Environmental Science 205:012062 DOI: 10.1088/1755-1315/250/1/012062
  11. Harjanti, D.W., Wulandari, D., Hartanto, R., Muktiani, A. 2020. Tingkat peradangan mammary dan stabilitas susu sapi mastitis subklinis yang mendapat suplemen herbal Zn-Se proteinat. Livestock and Animal Research 18(2): 115-125. DOI: 10.20961/lar.v18i2.42935
  12. Hwang, S.J., Lee, H.S., Park, S.G., Kwak, H.S. 2007. Comparison of physicochemical and sensory properties of freeze-concentrated milk with evaporated milk during storing. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Science 20(2):273-282. DOI: 10.5713/ajas.2007.273
  13. Ibrahim, A.I., Naufalin, R., Wuryatno, E., Dwiyanti, H., Hamouda, S.E. 2020. Influence of temperature and time on microbial. Physicochemical and functional quality of goat milk. African Journal of Food Science 14(4):86-91. DOI: 10.5897/AJFS2020.1912
  14. Khadre, M.A., Yousef, A.E., Kim, J.G. 2001. Microbiological aspects of ozone applications in food: a review. Journal of Food Science. Chicago 66(9):1242-1252. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2621.2001.tb15196.x
  15. Kim, J.G., Yousef, A.E., Dave, S. 1999. Application of ozone for enhancing the microbiological safety and quality of food: A review. Journal of Food Protection 62(9):1071-1087. DOI: 10.4315/0362-028X-62.9.1071
  16. Kumar, A., Sharma, A. 2016. Nutritional and medicinal superiority of goat milk over cow milk in infants. International Journal of Pediatric Nursing 2(1):46-50. DOI: 10.21088/ijpen.2454.9126.2116.6
  17. Lad, S.S., Aparnathi, K.D., Mehta, B., Velpula, S. 2017. Goat milk in human nutrition and health- A Review. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Science 6(5):1781-1792. DOI: 10.20546/ijcmas.2017.605.194
  18. Lobo, V., Patil, A., Phatak, A., Chandra, N. 2010. Free radicals, antioxidants and functional foods: Impact on human health. Pharmacognosy Reviews 4(8):118–126. DOI: 10.4103/0973-7847.70902
  19. Maesya, A., Rusdiana, S. 2018. Prospek pengembangan usaha ternak kambing dan memacu peningkatan ekonomi peternak. Jurnal Sosial Ekonomi dan Kebijakan Pertanian 7(2):1-14. DOI: 10.21107/agriekonomika.v7i2.4459
  20. Manzi, P., M.G.D., Constanzo, M., Mattera. 2013. Updating nutritional data and evaluation of technological parameters of Italian milk. Foods 2(1): 254-273. DOI: 10.3390/foods2020254
  21. Moore, G., Griffith, C., Peters, A. 2000. Bactericidal properties of ozone and its potential application as a terminal disinfectant. Journal of Food Protection 63(8):1100-1106. DOI: 10.4315/0362-028X-63.8.1100
  22. Novak, J.S., Yuan, J.T.C. 2004. Increased inactivation of ozone-treated Clostridium perfringens vegetative cells and spores on fabricated beef surfaces using mild heat. Journal of Food Protection 67(2): 342-346. DOI: 10.4315/0362-028X-67.2.342
  23. Prayitno, S.S., Sumarmono, J., Rahardjo, A.H.D., Setyawardani, T. 2020. Modifikasi sifat fisik yogurt susu kambing dengan penambahan microbial transglutaminase dan sumber protein eksternal. Jurnal Aplikasi Teknologi Pangan 9(2):77-82. DOI: 10.17728/jatp.6396
  24. Puspitarini, O.R., Herbani, M. 2018. Kadar protein, kadar lemak dan solid non-fat susu kambing pasteurisasi pada penyompanan refrigerator. Jurnal Aplikasi Teknologi Pangan 7(1):12-14. DOI: 10.17728/jatp.2162
  25. Segat, A.M., Biasutti, L., Lacumin, G., Comi, F., Baruzzi, C., Carboni, N., Innocente. 2014. Use of ozone in production chain of high moisture Mozarella cheese. Food Science and Technology 55:513-520. DOI: 10.1016/j.lwt.2013.10.029
  26. Selma, M.V., Ibanez, A.M., Cantwell, M., Suslow, T. 2008. Reduction by gaseous ozone of Salmonella and microbial flora associated with fresh-cut cantaloupe. Food Microbiology 25(4):558-565. DOI: 10.1016/
  27. Sert, D., Mercan, E., Kara, U. 2020. Butter production from ozone-treated cream: Effects on characteristics of physicochemical, microbiological, thermal and oxidative stability. DOI: 10.1016/j.lwt.2020.109722
  28. SNI 2897:2008. Standar Nasional Indonesia: Metode pengujian cemaran mikroba dalam daging, telur dan susu, serta hasil olahannya. Badan Standardisasi Nasional
  29. Steel, R.G.D., Torrie, J.H. 1991. Prinsip dan Prosedur. PT. Gramedia, Jakarta. (Diterjemahkan oleh Bambang Sumantri)
  30. Torlak, E., Sert, D. 2013. Inactivation of Cronobacter by gaseous ozone in milk powders with different fat contents. International Dairy Journal 32(1):121-125. DOI: 10.1016/j.idairyj.2013.05.013
  31. Uzun, H., Ibanoglu, E., Catal, H., Ibanoglu, S. 2012. Effects of ozone on functional properties of proteins. Food Chemistry 134(2):647-654. DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.02.146
  32. Varga, L., Szigeti, J. 2016. Use of ozone in dairy industry: A Review. International Journal of Dairy Technology 69(2):157-168. DOI: 10.1111/1471-0307.12302
  33. Zabbia, A., DeKock, R., Buys, E. 2012. Undesirable Sulphur and carbonyl flavor compounds in UHT milk: A Review. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 52(1):21-30. DOI: 10.1080/10408398.2010.487166

Last update: 2021-04-13 15:26:27

No citation recorded.

Last update: 2021-04-13 15:26:28

No citation recorded.