Mikroenkapsulasi Senyawa Fenolik Ekstrak Daun Kenikir (Cosmos caudatus K.)

*Tagor Marsillam Siregar -  Laboratorium Kimia, Program Studi Teknologi Pangan, Fakultas Sains dan Teknologi, Universitas Pelita Harapan, Jakarta, Indonesia
Clarine Kristanti -  Laboratorium Kimia, Program Studi Teknologi Pangan, Fakultas Sains dan Teknologi, Universitas Pelita Harapan, Jakarta, Indonesia
Received: 27 Sep 2018; Revised: 16 Jan 2019; Accepted: 25 Feb 2009; Published: 27 Feb 2019.
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Abstract

Daun Kenikir (Cosmos caudatus K.) memiliki kandungan senyawa fenolik dan aktivitas antioksidan tinggi yang telah diketahui sensitif terhadap cahaya, oksigen dan panas. Enkapsulasi dapat melindungi senyawa fenolik dalam ekstrak. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mempelajari pengaruh rasio bahan inti dan bahan penyalut (1:10 dan 1: 20) dan suhu inlet spray dryer (125, 150 dan 175oC) terhadap karakteristik mikrokapsul. Pada penelitian tahap pendahuluan, daun kenikir diekstraksi menggunakan pelarut etanol, kemudian ekstrak yang diperoleh dianalisis aktivitas antioksidan dan total fenolik. Pada tahap selanjutnya ekstrak dienkapsulasi dan mikrokapsul yang diperoleh dianalisis powder recovery, kandungan total fenolik, effisiensi enkapsulasi, aktivitas antioksidan dan ukuran partikel. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa rasio bahan inti dan bahan penyalut dan suhu inlet spray dryer mempengaruhi powder recovery, total fenolik, effisiensi enkapsulasi, aktivitas antioksidan dan ukuran partikel mikrokapsul. Perlakuan dengan rasio bahan inti dan bahan penyalut sebesar 1:20 dan suhu inlet spray dryer 125oC menghasilkan mikrokapsul dengan powder recovery 59,87%, total fenol 24,644 mgGAE/g sampel, efisiensi enkapsulasi 98,820%, aktivitas antioksidan (IC50) 1711,804 ppm dan ukuran partikel 1,55 µm. Kesimpulannya, rasio bahan inti dan bahan penyalut serta suhu inlet spray drying merupakan faktor yang sangat berperan penting dalam karakteristik mikroenkapsul.

Microencapsulation of Phenolic Compounds From Cosmos caudatus K. Leaves Extract

Abstract

Cosmos caudatus K. leaves are high in total phenolic content and antioxidant activity that are sensitive to light, oxygen, and heat. Encapsulation process may protect the phenolic compounds of extract. This research was aimed to study the effect of the leaves extract and coating ratio (1:10 and 1:20) and various spray drying inlet temperatures (125, 150, and 175°C) towards the characteristics of microcapsules. In preliminary stage, Cosmos caudatus K. leaves were extracted with ethanol. The extract was analyzed for antioxidant activity and total phenolic content. In the beginning stage, the extract were encapsulated. The microcapsules were analyzed for powder recovery, total phenolic content, encapsulation efficiency, antioxidant activity, and particle size. As results, the extract and coating ratio as well as inlet temperature affected the powder recovery, total phenolic content, encapsulation efficiency, antioxidant activity, and particle size of microcapsules. Microcapsules with ratio of 1:20 and inlet temperature of 125°C provided the best result with powder recovery 59.87%, total phenolic content 24.644 mg GAE/g sample, encapsulation efficiency 98.820%, IC50 1711.804 ppm, and particle size 1.55 μm. As conclusion, the extract leaves and coating ratio as well as inlet temperature effected the characteristic of microencapsules.

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Keywords
Antioksidant, Antioxidant, Cosmos caudatus K., Microencapsulation, Fenol, Phenolic Compounds, Spray Drying

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