Potensi Ekstrak Daun Senduduk (Melastoma malabathricum L.) sebagai Food Additive pada Sosis Daging Sapi

*Suharyanto Suharyanto  -  Departemen Ilmu Produksi dan Teknologi Peternakan, Fakultas Peternakan, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Bogor, Indonesia
Henny Nuraini  -  Departemen Ilmu Produksi dan Teknologi Peternakan, Fakultas Peternakan, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Bogor, Indonesia
Tuti Suryati  -  Departemen Ilmu Produksi dan Teknologi Peternakan, Fakultas Peternakan, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Bogor, Indonesia
Irma Isnafia Arief  -  Departemen Ilmu Produksi dan Teknologi Peternakan, Fakultas Peternakan, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Bogor, Indonesia
Dondin Sajuthi  -  Departemen Klinik Reproduksi Patologi, Fakultas Kedokteran Hewan, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Bogor, Indonesia
Received: 29 Aug 2018; Accepted: 12 Jan 2019; Published: 20 Feb 2019.
Open Access License URL: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0

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Article Info
Section: Artikel Penelitian (Research Article)
Language: EN
Statistics: 786 1071
Abstract

Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis potensi esktrak daun senduduk (EDS) sebagai food additive ditinjau dari sifat fisikokimia dan mikrobiologi sosis daging sapi selama penyimpanan dingin. Sebanyak 40 g bubuk daun senduduk dimaserasi dalam air destilata (1:4; b/v) selama 24 jam pada suhu kamar, disaring, kemudian di-freeze dry. Empat perlakuan diaplikasikan, yaitu kontrol yang mengandung daging sapi, minyak nabati, susu skim bubuk, tepung tapioka, garam, fosfat, es, dan bumbu-bumbu (kontrol); formula kontrol ditambah dengan ekstrak 0,55% (EDS), ditambah garam nitrit 0,0011% (nitrit), dan ditambah keduanya (EDS+nitrit). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penambahan EDS dan kombinasinya dengan nitrit menurunkan susut masak sosis. Kandungan nutrisi semua sosis penelitian masuk dalam kategori SNI. Nilai pH sosis menurun akibat pemberian EDS, bukan oleh lamanya penyimpanan. Lama penyimpanan berpengaruh terhadap meningkatnya aw sosis dengan menghasilkan nilai yang sama pada penyimpanan hari ke-12 untuk semua sosis. EDS dan nitrit memberikan efek yang sama terhadap daya mengikat air (DMA) yang lebih rendah dibanding kontrol pada hari ke-0, tetapi memiliki DMA yang sama pada penyimpanan hari ke-12. Warna sosis tidak berbeda antar sosis dan lamanya penyimpanan kecuali pada sosis yang diberi nitrit memiliki derajat kemerahan lebih tinggi. Penambahan EDS dapat meningkatkan kandungan senyawa fenolat, aktivitas antioksidan pada sosis, dan menurunkan nilai TBARS serta mereduksi nitrit pada setiap masa penyimpanan. Kombinasi EDS dan nitrit menekan pertumbuhan bakteri hingga penyimpanan hari ke-12. Pemberian EDS saja hanya menekan pertumbuhan bakteri hingga hari ke-6. Meskipun demikian secara mikrobiologis, sosis masih masuk kategori SNI kecuali keberadaan Salmonella yang muncul pada hari ke-9.

Potential Use of Senduduk (Melastoma malabathricum) Leaf Extract as Food Additive on Beef Sausage

Abstract

This study aimed to analyze the potency of senduduk leaf extracts (SLE) as a food additive to physicochemical and microbiological properties of beef sausages during refrigerated storage. A-40 g powder was macerated with distilled water (1:4; w/v) for 24 h at room temperature, filtered, and then was freeze-dried. Four treatments were employed including control containing beef, vegetable oil, skimmed milk powder, tapioca, salt, phosphate, ice, and seasons (control); control added extract 0.55% (SLE); sodium nitrite 0.0011% (nitrite); and both (SLE+nitrite). The results showed the addition of SLE and SLE+nitrite decreased the cooking loss. The nutritional content of all sausages fit SNI (Indonesia Nasional Standard) category. The pH of sausage decreased caused by SLE, not by storage. The storage affected increasing aw sausages by yielding the similar value at day 12th. SLE and nitrites exerted an equivalent effect on water holding capacity (WHC) compared to control on day 0 but gave the same WHC at day 12 storage. The Sausage color was not different between treatment and storage except for sausage added with nitrite, which had a higher redness. The SLE increased phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, but decreased the TBARS value and reduced nitrite residue at each storage period. The SLE and nitrite combination declined the bacterial growth until the 12th day of storage, while SLE delayed bacterial growth until day 6. Nevertheless, microbiologically, sausage was still included in the SNI category except for the presence of Salmonella on day 9.

Keywords: ekstrak; Melastoma malabathricum; karakteristik sosis

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