Optimasi Ekstraksi Berbantu Gelombang Ultrasonik pada Biji Melinjo Kerikil (Gnetum gnemon L., ‘Kerikil’) Menggunakan Response Surface Methodology

*Bambang Kunarto -  Jurusan Teknologi Hasil Pertanian, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Universitas Semarang, Semarang, Indonesia
Sutardi Sutardi -  Jurusan Teknologi Pangan dan Hasil Pertanian, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Supriyanto Supriyanto -  Jurusan Teknologi Pangan dan Hasil Pertanian, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Chairil Anwar -  Jurusan Kimia, Fakultas Matematika dan Ilmu Pengetahuan Alam, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Received: 13 Jun 2019; Revised: 10 Aug 2019; Accepted: 11 Aug 2019; Published: 12 Aug 2019; Available online: 12 Aug 2019.
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Biji melinjo kerikil mengandung senyawa fenolik dan resveratrol sehingga berpotensi sebagai antioksidan, oleh karena itu perlu dilakukan ekstraksi. Metoda ekstraksi konvensional (maserasi, perebusan, refluxing) mempunyai kelemahan yaitu terjadinya kerusakan senyawa fenolik akibat reaksi oksidasi, hidrolisis dan ionisasi selama proses ekstraksi. Oleh karena itu, pada penelitian ini ekstraksi biji melinjo kerikil dilakukan menggunakan metode ekstraksi berbantu gelombang ultrasonik. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk optimasi ekstraksi biji melinjo kerikil berbantu gelombang ultrasonik yang dilakukan pada berbagai waktu ekstraksi, suhu ekstraksi dan konsentrasi pelarut etanol. Surface response methodology digunakan untuk optimasi kondisi ekstraksi. Biji melinjo kerikil diekstrak menggunakan ultrasonic bath pada frekuensi 40 kHz dengan berbagai suhu (25, 30, 35, 40, 45oC), waktu ekstraksi (10, 20, 30, 40, 50 menit) dan konsentrasi pelarut etanol (40, 50, 60, 70 80%). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kondisi optimum ekstraksi biji melinjo kerikil berbantu gelombang ultrasonik adalah pada suhu 30,18oC, waktu 33,01 menit dan konsentrasi pelarut etanol 71,04%. Pada kondisi ini, diperoleh yield ekstrak 18,41 ± 0,01%, total fenolik 11,26 ± 0,06 mg GAE/g, total flavonoid 533,70 ± 0,18 mg CE/100g, resveratrol 7,64 ± 0, 03%, IC50 sebesar 59,52 ± 0,04 ppm dan reducing power 76,31 ± 0,08%. Sebagai kesimpulan, optimasi ekstraksi biji melinjo kerikil berbantu gelombang ultrasonik menggunakan response surface methodology ini cukup baik karena nilai respon yang sebenarnya sesuai dengan nilai respon yang diprediksi.

Melinjo kerikil seeds contain phenolic and resveratrol compounds so that it has the potential as an antioxidant, therefore extraction needs to be done. Conventional extraction methods (maceration, boiling, refluxing) have the disadvantage of devasting phenolic compounds due to oxidation, hydrolysis and ionization reactions during the extraction process. Therefore, in this study the extraction of melinjo kerikil seeds done by using the ultrasonic-assisted extraction method. The study aims to optimize ultrasonic-assisted extraction of melinjo kerikil seeds that be done at various extraction times, extraction temperatures and ethanol solvents concentrations. Response surface methodology was used to optimize experimental condition for extraction. Melinjo kerikil seeds were extracted by using ultrasonic bath at a frequency of 40 kHz with various temperatures (25, 30, 35, 40, 45oC), extraction time (10, 20, 30, 40, 50 minutes) and ethanol solvents concentrations (40, 50, 60, 70 80 %). The results showed that the optimum conditions for ultrasonic-assisted extraction of melinjo kerikil seeds were at a temperature of 30.18oC, a time of 33.01 minutes and an ethanol solvent concentration of 71.04%. In this condition, obtained the extract yield 18.41 ± 0.01%, total phenolic 11.26 ± 0.06 mg GAE/g, total flavonoids 533.70 ± 0.18 mg CE/100g, resveratrol 7.64 ± 0,03%, IC50 in the amount of 59.52 ± 0.04 ppm and reducing power 76.31 ± 0.08%. As a conclusion, the optimization ultrasonic-assisted extraction of melinjo kerikil seeds by using response surface methodology is quite good because the actual response value is in accordance with the predicted response value.

melinjo; ekstraksi; ultrasonik; resveratrol; antioksidan

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