Karakteristik Kimia dan Mikrobiologi Makanan Ringan Khas Pemalang Ogel-ogel

*Siti Susanti scopus  -  Program Studi Teknologi Pangan, Fakultas Peternakan dan Pertanian, Universitas Diponegoro, Semarang, Indonesia
Fahmi Arifan  -  Program Studi Teknik Rekayasa Kimia Industri, Departemen Teknologi Industri, Sekolah Vokasi, Universitas Diponegoro, Semarang, Indonesia
Murni Murni  -  Departemen Teknik Mesin, Fakultas Teknik, Universitas Diponegoro, Semarang, Indonesia
Ana Silviana  -  Fakultas Hukum, Universitas Diponegoro, Semarang, Indonesia
Received: 26 Sep 2018; Revised: 4 Mar 2020; Accepted: 9 Mar 2020; Published: 10 May 2020; Available online: 10 May 2020.
Open Access License URL: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0

Citation Format:

Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui karakteristik kimia dan mikrobiologis sebagai dasar penentu kualitas produk makanan ringan ogel-ogel khas Pemalang agar sesuai dengan peraturan SNI 01-2886-2015. Ogel-ogel berbahan dasar tepung beras ketan yang dicampur dengan telur, keju, gula, dan garam. Selanjutnya adonan tersebut dicetak seperti ulat menggeliat dengan menggunakan ekstruder yang kemudian digoreng. Penelitian dilakukan secara deskriptif dengan parameter uji karakteristik kimia yaitu kadar karbohidrat, protein, lemak, air, abu, garam, logam berat, dan uji ketengikan serta mikrobiologi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ogel-ogel memiliki nilai ketengikan (nilai TBA) 2,16 mg MA/kg; kadar karbohidrat, protein, lemak, air, abu, dan garam masing-masing sebesar 44,75; 13,52; 39,42; 2,51; 0,08; dan 1,87%. Tidak ditemukan adanya kandungan logam berat pada ogel-ogel kecuali timah (10,56 mg/kg) dengan jumlah total mikroba sebanyak 0,87x104 CFU/g. Dapat disimpulkan bahwa secara umum mutu ogel-ogel ditinjau dari karakteristik mikrobiologi dan kimianya telah sesuai dengan Standar Nasional Indonesia tentang makanan ringan ekstrusi (SNI 01-2886-2015) kecuali kadar lemaknya yang masih tinggi. Perlu dipikirkan teknik produksi ogel-ogel dimasa yang akan datang supaya kadar lemaknya lebih rendah sehingga mutunya sesuai dengan SNI. 

Chemical and Microbiological Characteristic of Ogel-ogel Pemalang Typical Snack


This study was aimed to get more insight the chemical and microbiological characteristics as a basis for determining the quality of ogel-ogel (snack products typical of Pemalang) to comply with SNI regulations 01-2886-2015. Ogel-ogel made from glutinous rice flour mixed with eggs, cheese, sugar and salt. That dough was molded like a stretched worm by using an extruder and then was fried. The study was conducted descriptively with chemical (carbohydrate, protein, fat, water, ash, salt, heavy metal, and rancidity test) and microbiology (total plate count-TPC) characteristic as the parameters. The results showed that ogel-ogel had a rancidity (TBA) value of 2.16 mg MA/kg; carbohydrate, protein, fat, moisture, ash and salt content of 44.75; 13.52; 39.42; 2.51; 0.08; and 1.87% respectively. No heavy metal content was found in ogel-ogel except lead (10.56 mg/kg) with a total amount of microbes of 0.87x104 CFU/g. It can be concluded that as general, the quality of ogel-ogel in the aspects of microbiological and chemical characteristics was in accordance with the Indonesian National Standard of extruded snacks (SNI 01-2886-2015) except for its high fat content. Further technique to produce ogel-ogel with low fat is necessary to be contemplated to fulfill the quality of ogel-ogel in accordance with SNI.

Keywords: ogel-ogel; kimia; mikrobiologi; karakteristik; Pemalang; Indonesia; chemical; microbiological; characteristic

Article Metrics:

  1. Agustina, T. 2014. Kontaminasi logam berat pada makanan dan dampaknya pada kesehatan. Jurnal Teknologi Busana dan Boga 1 (1): 53-65
  2. Ahmad, S., Ashraf, K., Khan, I. 2017. Quality and shelf life of snack food as influenced by incorporation of high protein pulses in multipurpose flour. Journal of Food Science Nutrition 3:19-24. DOI: 10.24966/FSN-1076/100019
  3. Albarracin, W., Sanchez, I.C., Grau, R., Barat, J.M. 2011. Salt in food processing; usage and reduction: a review. International Journal of Food Science Technology 46 (7):1329-1336. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2621.2010.02492.x
  4. AOAC, 2000. Official Methods of Analysis (17th ed.). Association of Official Analytical Chemists, USA
  5. AOAC. 2005. Official Methods of Analysis. Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Washington, USA
  6. AOAC. 2012. Official Method of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical of Chemist. Arlington, USA
  7. Awolu, O.O., Oluwaferanmi, P.M., Fafowora, O.I., Oseyemi, G.F. 2015. Optimization of the extrusion process for the production of ready-to-eat snack from rice, cassava and kersting's groundnut composite flours. LWT-Food Science and Technology 64(1):18-24. DOI: 10.1016/j.lwt.2015.05.025
  8. Ayangbenro, A.S., Babalola, O.O. 2017. A new strategy for heavy metal polluted environments: A review of microbial biosorbents. International Journal of Environmental Research Public Health 14 (1): 1-16. DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14010094
  9. Bansal, V., Kanawjia, S.K., Khetra, Y., Puri, R., Debnath, A. 2017. Effect of whey protein concentrate, sodium caseinate, Cheddar cheese, and milk fat on sensory and functional properties of cheese dip. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation 41(5):13174. DOI: 10.1111/jfpp.13174
  10. Bisharat, G.I., Lazou, A.E., Panagiotou, N.M., Krokida, M.K., Maroulis, Z.B. 2015. Antioxidant potential and quality characteristics of vegetable-enriched corn-based extruded snacks. Journal of Food Science and Technology 52(7):3986-4000. DOI: 10.1007/s13197-014-1519-z
  11. Blunden, S., Wallace, T. 2003. Tin in canned food: a review and understanding of occurrence and effect. Food and Chemical Toxicology 41 (12):1651-1662. DOI: 10.1016/S0278-6915(03)00217-5
  12. Dhanesh, T.B., Kochhar, A., Javed, M. 2018. Effect of storage on the quality of value added snacks developed using partially defatted peanut cake flour and fenugreek leaves powder. Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences 7(2):1127-1135. DOI: 10.20546/ijcmas.2018.702.140
  13. Emsley, J. 2011.Nature's Building Blocks, new edition, Oxford University Press, Oxford
  14. Estiasih, T., Ahmadi, K. 2009. Teknologi Pengolahan Pangan. PT. Bumi Aksara, Jakarta
  15. Esposto, S., Taticchi, A., Di Maio, I., Urbani, S., Veneziani, G., Selvaggini, R., Sordini, B., Servili, M. 2015. Effect of an olive phenolic extract on the quality of vegetable oils during frying. Journal of Food chemistry 176(1):184-192. DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.12.036
  16. Flora, G., Gupta, D., Tiwari, A. 2012. Toxicity of lead: A review with recent updates. Interdiscip Toxicol 5 (2):47–58. DOI: 10.2478/v10102-012-0009-2
  17. Fox, P.F., Guinee, T.P., Cogan, T.M., McSweeney, P.L.H. 2017. Fundamentals of Cheese Science (Page 475-532). Springer, New York. DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4899-7681-9
  18. Gat, Y., Ananthanarayan, L. 2015. Effect of extrusion process parameters and pregelatinized rice flour on physicochemical properties of ready-to-eat expanded snacks. Journal of Food Science and Technology 52(5):2634-2645. DOI: 10.1007/s13197-014-1378-7
  19. Gibb, H., O’Leary, K.G. 2014. Mercury exposure and health impacts among individuals in the artisanal and small-scale gold mining community: A comprehensive review. Environmental Health Perspective 122 (7):667-672. DOI: 10.1289/ehp.1307864
  20. Harvey, D. 2000. Modern Analytical Chemistry. 1st ed. The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. North America
  21. Hermanto, S., Muawanah, A., Wardhani, P. 2010. Analisis Tingkat Kerusakan Lemak Nabati dan Lemak Hewani Akibat Proses Pemanasan. Jurnal Kimia Valensi 1(6):262-268
  22. Karimi, S., Wawire, M., Mathooko, F.M. 2017. Impact of frying practices and frying conditions on the quality and safety of frying oils used by street vendors and restaurants in Nairobi, Kenya. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 62:239-244. DOI: 10.1016/j.jfca.2017.07.004
  23. Kita, A., Bąkowska-Barczak, A., Lisińska, G., Hamouz, K., Kułakowska, K. 2015. Antioxidant activity and quality of red and purple flesh potato chips. LWT-Food Science and Technology 62(1):525-531. DOI : 10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.08.038
  24. Kotsanopoulos, K.V., Arvanitoyannis, I.S. 2017. The role of auditing, food safety, and food quality standards in the food industry: A review. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety 16:760-775. DOI: 10.1111/1541-4337.12293
  25. Kumar, S. 2014. Alkaloidal drugs- A review. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Science & Technology 4 (3): 107-119
  26. Mariotti, M., Caccialanza, G., Cappa, C., Lucisano, M. 2018. Rheological behaviour of rice flour gels during formation: influence of the amylose content and of the hydrothermal and mechanical history. Journal of Food Hydrocolloids 84:257-266. DOI: 10.1016/j.foodhyd.2018.06.006
  27. Nsabimana, P., Powers, J.R., Chew, B., Mattinson, S., Baik, B.K. 2018. Effects of deep‐fat frying temperature on antioxidant properties of whole wheat doughnuts. Journal of Food Science & Technology 53(3):665-675. DOI: 10.1111/ijfs.13641
  28. Offiah, V., Kontogiorgos, V., Falade, K.O. 2018. Extrusion processing of raw food materials and by-products: A Review. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 59(18):2575-2998. DOI: 10.1080/10408398.2018.1480007
  29. Ojokoh, A.O., Udeh, E.N. 2014. Effects of fermentation and extrusion on the proximate composition and organoleptic properties of sorghum-soya blend. Journal of Biotechnology 13(40):4008-4018. DOI: 10.5897/JB2014.14006
  30. Peraturan Kepala Badan Pengawas Obat dan Makanan Nomor 16 Tahun 2016 tentang Kriteria Mikrobiologi dalam Pangan Olahan. Badan Pengawasan Obat dan Makanan. Jakarta
  31. Philip, C., Oey, I., Silcock, P., Beck, S.M., Buckow, R. 2017. Impact of protein content on physical and microstructural properties of extruded rice starch-pea protein snacks. Journal of Food Engineering 212:165-173. DOI: 10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2017.05.024
  32. Salahudin, F., Syamsixman, S. 2010. The effect of filler on the quality of snack food extruded from solid matter of industrial soybean tofu. Biopropal Industri 1(2):18-23
  33. Saparinto, Hidayati. 2006. Bahan Tambahan Pangan. Kanisius, Jakarta
  34. Shahmohammadi, H.R., Bakar, J., Russly, A.R., Noranizan, M.A., Mirhosseini, H. 2016. Studying the effects of fish muscle incorporation on storage stability of a novel corn fish snack. Journal of Food Quality 39(1):45-53. DOI: 10.1111/jfq/12173
  35. Shen, Y., Chang, C., Shi, M., Su, Y., Gu, L., Li, J., Yang, Y. 2020. Interactions between lecithin and yolk granule and their influence on the emulsifying properties. Food Hydrocolloids 101:1- 8. DOI: 10.1016/j.foodhyd.2019.105510
  36. SNI (Standar Nasional Indonesia). 2015. 2886-2015 tentang Makanan Ringan Ekstrudat. Badan Standarisasi Nasional, Jakarta
  37. Sudarmadji, S. 1989. Analisa Bahan Makanan dan Pertanian. PAU Pangan dan Gizi UGM. Yogyakarta
  38. Susanti, R.A. 2014. Aplikasi fotografi makanan pada berbagai panduan wisata kuliner khas Kabupaten Pemalang. Arty: Journal of Visual Arts 3 (1):21-27
  39. Syamaladevi, R.M., Tang, J., Sablani, S., Carter, B., Campbell, G. 2016. Influence of Water Activity on Thermal Resistance of Microorganisms in Low‐Moisture Foods: A Review. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety 15 (2): 353-370. DOI: 10.1111/1541-4337.12190
  40. Undang-undang Nomor 18 tahun 2012 tentang Pangan. Undang-Undang Republik Indonesia. Jakarta
  41. Valenzuela-Lagarda, J.L., García-Armenta, E., Pacheco-Aguilar, R., Gutiérrez-Dorado, R., Mazorra-Manzano, M.Á., Lugo-Sánchez, M.E., Muy-Rangel, M.D. 2018. Relationships between morphometrical properties and the texture of an extrusion-expanded snack made from squid mantle (Dosidicus gigas). Journal of Texture Studies 49 (5): 556-562. DOI : 10.1111/jtxs. 12321
  42. Valverde, D., Laca, A., Estrada, L.N., Paredes, B., Rendueles, M., Díaz, M. 2016. Egg yolk fractions as basic ingredient in the development of new snack products. Journal of Gastronomy and Food Science 3:23-29. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijgfs.2016.02.002
  43. Vasanthan, T., Gaosong, J., Yeung, J., Li, J. 2002. Dietary fiber profile of barley flour as affected by extrusion cooking. Food Chemistry 77(1): 35-40. DOI: 10.1016/S0308-8146(01)00318-1
  44. Wang, L.Z., White, P.J. 1994. Structure and properties of amylose, amylopectin, and intermediate materials of oat starches. Cereal Chemistry 7 (3): 263-268
  45. Waspadji, Suyono. 2011. Daftar Bahan Makanan Penukar. Edisi Ketiga. Balai Penerbit FKUI, Jakarta
  46. Winarno, F.G. 1992. Kimia Pangan dan Gizi. PT. Gramedia Pustaka Utama, Jakarta

Last update: 2021-04-19 06:22:34

No citation recorded.

Last update: 2021-04-19 06:22:34

No citation recorded.