Ekstraksi, Pengeringan Semprot, dan Analisis Sifat Fisikokimia Antosianin Beras Hitam (Oryza sativa L.)

*Rianita Pramitasari  -  Program Studi Teknologi Pangan, Fakultas Teknobiologi, Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya, Jakarta, Indonesia
Natasha Angelica  -  Program Studi Teknologi Pangan, Fakultas Teknobiologi, Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya, Jakarta, Indonesia
Received: 25 Sep 2019; Revised: 30 Apr 2020; Accepted: 6 May 2020; Published: 10 May 2020; Available online: 10 May 2020.
Open Access License URL: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0

Citation Format:
Article Info
Section: Artikel Penelitian (Research Article)
Language: ID
Statistics: 489 193
Abstract

Antosianin merupakan senyawa bioaktif yang terdapat pada beras hitam dan memiliki aktivitas antioksidan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan ekstrak dan serbuk beras hitam tinggi antosianin, serta mengevaluasi sifat fisikokimianya. Proses ekstraksi antosianin dilakukan menggunakan metode maserasi dengan variasi perlakuan pelarut (air, air + asam sitrat 4% (b/v), dan etanol + asam sitrat 20% (b/v) sebagai kontrol) dan waktu maserasi (6, 18, 24, dan 48 jam). Hasil ekstrak kemudian dianalisis sifat kimianya. Selanjutnya, ekstrak dikeringkan menggunakan metode pengeringan semprot dengan variasi suhu pengeringan (160 dan 200 oC) dan penambahan maltodekstrin (10 dan 20%, b/v). Serbuk hasil pengeringan kemudian dianalisis sifat fisikokimianya. Hasil ekstraksi optimum ditandai dengan tingginya kadar antosianin total yang dianalisis menggunakan metode perbedaan pH dalam ekstrak. Kondisi optimum didapatkan pada ekstraksi menggunakan air + asam sitrat pada jam ke-24 yang ditunjukkan dengan kandungan antosianin total sebesar 0,85±0,02 mg/g. Pengeringan optimum yang ditandai dengan tingginya antosianin total (0,12±0,01 mg/g) dan %aktivitas penghambatan DPPH (46,22±0,24%) didapatkan pada sampel yang diekstraksi dengan air + asam sitrat dengan konsentrasi maltodekstrin 10% dan suhu pengeringan 200 ºC. Sementara itu, hasil analisis fisik yaitu kadar air, aktivitas air, kelarutan, dan viskositas serbuk setelah dilarutkan memiliki nilai yang menyerupai minuman serbuk komersial. Dapat disimpulkan bahwa ekstraksi antosianin beras hitam menggunakan metode maserasi dengan pelarut air + asam sitrat selama 24 jam dan dilanjutkan pengeringan semprot pada suhu 200 ºC menggunakan penyalut maltodekstrin 10% menghasilkan serbuk yang berpotensi untuk diaplikasikan sebagai ingridien minuman fungsional karena memiliki sifat fisik yang menyerupai minuman serbuk komersial dan memiliki aktivitas antioksidan.

Extraction, Spray Drying, and Physicochemical Analysis of Black Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Anthocyanin

Abstract

Anthocyanin is a bioactive compound found in black rice and has antioxidant activity. The study aims to obtain extract and powder of high black rice anthocyanin, as well as evaluate its physicochemical properties. The extraction process of anthocyanin was carried out using maceration method with variations in solvent and time of maceration. The extract results were then analyzed the chemical properties. The extract was spray dried with variations in the drying temperature and the addition of maltodextrin. The total anthocyanin and psychochemical value were then analyzed. The extraction using water + citric acid for 24 hours showed total anthocyanin of 0.85 ± 0.02 mg/g. Optimum drying was characterized by the highest total anthocyanins (0.12 ± 0.01 mg/g) and scavenging activity (46.22 ± 0.24%) that was obtained in the sample using water + citric acid solvent with 10% maltodextrin and drying temperature at 200 ºC. Meanwhile, physical analysis results of water content, water activity, solubility, and the viscosity of powder after being dissolved had beyond value of commercial powder drink. It can be concluded that the extraction of black rice anthocyanin using a water + citric acid as solvent for 24 hours and spray drying at a temperature of 200 º C using maltodextrin 10% produced highest value indicating the potent use as a beverage ingredient.

Keywords: antosianin, beras hitam, maserasi, pengeringan semprot, sifat fisikokimia; anthocyanin; black rice; maceration; spray drying; physicochemical properties

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