Pengaruh Substitusi Tepung Terigu dengan Tepung Umbi Dahlia dan Konsentrasi Baking Powder terhadap Karakteristik Fisik Cookies Kaya Serat

*Ahmad Zaki Mubarok  -  Jurusan Teknologi Hasil Pertanian, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Universitas Brawijaya, Malang, Indonesia
Ardelia Winata  -  Jurusan Teknologi Hasil Pertanian, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Universitas Brawijaya, Malang, Indonesia
Received: 23 Sep 2019; Revised: 13 Sep 2020; Accepted: 29 Nov 2020; Published: 6 Dec 2020; Available online: 6 Dec 2020.
Open Access License URL: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0

Citation Format:
Abstract

Cookies merupakan salah satu makanan ringan yang disukai disemua kalangan umur. Umumnya cookies terbuat dari tepung terigu, memiliki kandungan karbohidrat dan lemak yang tinggi namun mengandung kadar serat yang rendah. Pada penelitian ini tepung umbi dahlia digunakan sebagai substitusi tepung terigu untuk pembuatan cookies kaya serat. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengkaji penggunaan tepung umbi dahlia sebagai substitusi tepung terigu dan konsentrasi baking powder dalam formulasi pembuatan cookies. Rasio tepung umbi dahlia dan tepung terigu pada penelitian ini yaitu 15:85, 30:70, dan 45:55; dan konsentrasi baking powder yang digunakan yaitu 1–3% dari berat tepung. Metode Derringer’s Desirability Function digunakan untuk mendapatkan formula terbaik, dengan membandingkan kedekatan nilai karakteristik fisik cookies yang diberi perlakuan dengan karakteristik fisik cookies kontrol sebagai target. Hasil penelitian ini didapatkan formula terbaik untuk pembuatan cookies kaya serat adalah penggunaan rasio tepung umbi dahlia dan tepung terigu sebesar 30:70 dan penggunaan baking powder konsentrasi 3% dengan nilai total desirability (D) sebesar 0,87. Kesimpulan dari penelitian ini adalah cookies kaya serat berhasil dapat diproduksi dengan menggunakan tepung umbi dahlia dan jumlah penambahannya yang terbaik, dapat ditentukan.

Effect of Substitution of Wheat Flour with Dahlia Tuber Flour and Concentration of Baking Powder on Physical Properties of Fiber Rich Cookies

Abstract

Cookies are one of the snacks favored by wide range of consumers’s age. Usually, cookies made from wheat flour, which have high content of carbohydrate and fat but low content of fiber. In the present study, dahlia tuber flour was used to substitute wheat flour to produce fiber rich cookies. The effect of dahlia tuber flour was analyzed in the a varied baking powder addition. Dahlia tuber flour and wheat flour at ratio of 15:85, 30:70, and 45:55 (w/w); and baking powder concentration of 1–3% from total weight of the flour was usedas formula. Optimum formulation was obtained by Derringer’s Desirability Function, which compares the relation value of the physical properties of cookies made with dahlia tuber flour and control cookies which was made of wheat flour. The result showed that optimum formula to produce fiber rich cookies was obtained on the ratio of 30:70 and baking powder at concentration of 3%, with total desirability (D) value of 0.87. As conslusion, high fiber content cookies was succsessfully produced and the best dahlia tuber flour addition was determined optimally.
Keywords: tepung umbi dahlia; desirability function; cookies; dahlia tuber flour; baking powder
Funding: Lembaga Penelitian dan Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat (LPPM), Universitas Brawijaya

Article Metrics:

  1. Akın, M.B., Akın, M.S., Kırmacı, Z. 2007. Effects of inulin and sugar levels on the viability of yogurt and probiotic bacteria and the physical and sensory characteristics in probiotic ice-cream. Food Chemistry 104(1):93-99. DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.11.030
  2. Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC). 2005. Official methods of analysis of the association of analytical chemists. AOAC, Inc, Virginia
  3. Brennan, C.S., Kuri, V., Tudorica C.M. 2004. Inulin-enriched pasta: effects on textural properties and starch degradation. Food Chemistry 86(2):189-193. DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2003.08.034
  4. Del Castillo, E., Montgomery, D.C., McCarville, D.R. 1996. Modified desirability functions for multiple response optimization. Journal of Quality Technology 28(3):337-345. DOI: 10.1080/00224065.1996.11979684
  5. Desnilasari, D., Lestari, N.P.A. 2014. Formulasi minuman sinbiotik dengan penambahan puree pisang ambon (Musa paradisiaca var sapientum) dan inulin menggunakan inokulum Lactobacillus casei. Agritech 34(3):257-265. DOI: 10.22146/agritech.9453
  6. Ferdiansyah, M.K. 2018. Pengaruh konsumsi serat pangan barley pada metabolisme lipid. Jurnal Ilmu Pangan dan Hasil Pertanian 2(1):72-81. DOI: 10.26877/jiphp.v2i1.2441
  7. Forker, A., Zahn, S., Rohm, H. 2012. A combination of fat replacers enables the production of fat-reduced shortdough biscuits with high-sensory quality. Food and Bioprocess Technology 5(6): 2497-2505. DOI: 10.1007/s11947-011-0536-4
  8. Giarnetti, M., Paradiso, V.M., Caponio, F., Summo, C., Pasqualone, A. 2015. Fat replacement in shortbread cookies using an emulsion filled gel based on inulin and extra virgin olive oil. LWT-Food Science and Technology 63(1):339-345. DOI: 10.1016/j.lwt.2015.03.063
  9. He, Q., Lv, Y., Yao, K. 2007. Effects of tea polyphenols on the activities of α-amylase, pepsin, trypsin and lipase. Food Chemistry 101(3):1178-1182. DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.03.020
  10. Indriyanti, W., Desvianto, R., Musfiroh, I. 2015. Inulin dari akar jombang (Taraxacum officinale Webb.) sebagai prebiotik dalam yoghurt sinbiotik. Indonesian Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology 2(3):83-89. DOI: 10.15416/ijpst.v2i3.7904
  11. Jeong, I.J., Kim, K.J. 2009. An interactive desirability function method to multiresponse optimization. European Journal of Operational Research 195(2):412-426. DOI: 10.1016/j.ejor.2008.02.018
  12. Kiptiah, M., Hairiyah, N., Nurmalasari, A. 2018. Pengaruh substitusi tepung kulit pisang kepok (Musa paradisiaca L) terhadap kadar serat dan daya terima cookies. Jurnal Teknologi Agro-Industri 5(2):66-76. DOI: 10.34128/jtai.v5i2.72
  13. Kosasih, W., Pudjiraharti, S., Ratnaningrum, D., Priatni, S. 2015. Preparation of inulin from Dahlia tubers. Procedia Chemistry 16:190-194. DOI: 10.1016/j.proche.2015.12.035
  14. Kusharto, C.M. 2006. Serat makanan dan perannya bagi kesehatan. Jurnal Gizi dan Pangan 1(2):45-54. DOI: 10.25182/jgp.2006.1.2.45-54
  15. Laguna, L., Primo-Martín, C., Varela, P., Salvador, A., Sanz, T. 2014. HPMC and inulin as fat replacers in biscuits: Sensory and instrumental evaluation. LWT-Food Science and Technology 56(2):494-501. DOI: 10.1016/j.lwt.2013.12.025
  16. Lau, N.M., Green, P.H., Taylor, A.K., Hellberg, D., Ajamian, M., Tan, C.Z., Kosofsky, B.E., Higgins, J.J., Rajadhyaksha, A.M., Alaedini, A. 2013. Markers of celiac disease and gluten sensitivity in children with autism. PloS One 8(6): e66155. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0066155
  17. Lee, Y.J., Kim, D.B., Lee, O.H., Yoon, W.B. 2016. Characterizing texture, color and sensory attributes of cookies made with jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) flour using a mixture design and browning reaction kinetics. International Journal of Food Engineering 12(2):107-126. DOI: 10.1515/ijfe-2015-0248
  18. Lopez-Molina, D., Navarro-Martínez, M.D., Rojas-Melgarejo, F., Hiner, A.N., Chazarra, S., Rodríguez-López, J.N. 2005. Molecular properties and prebiotic effect of inulin obtained from artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.). Phytochemistry 66(12):1476-1484. DOI: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2005.04.003
  19. Madeira, A.C., Ferreira, A., de Varennes, A., Vieira, M.I. 2003. SPAD meter versus tristimulus colorimeter to estimate chlorophyll content and leaf color in sweet pepper. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 34(17-18): 2461-2470. DOI: 10.1081/css-120024779
  20. Mancilla-Margalli, N.A., López, M.G. 2002. Generation of maillard compounds from inulin during the thermal processing of Agave tequilana Weber Var. azul. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 50(4):806-812. DOI: 10.1021/jf0110295
  21. Muthuraman, V., Ramakrishnan, R. 2012. Multi parametric optimization of WC-Co composites using desirability approach. Procedia Engineering 38:3381-3390. DOI: 10.1016/j.proeng.2012.06.391
  22. Nugraheni, M.S., Purwanti, S., Handayani, T.H.W. 2017. Development of gluten-free cookies rich in resistant starch type 3 from Maranta arundinacea. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 16(9):659-665. DOI: 10.3923/pjn.2017.659.665
  23. Ötles, S., Ozgoz, S. 2014. Health effects of dietary fiber. Acta Scientiarum Polonorum Technologia Alimentaria 13(2):191-202. DOI: 10.17306/j.afs.2014.2.8
  24. Pareyt, B., Delcour, J.A. 2008. The role of wheat flour constituents, sugar, and fat in low moisture cereal based products: a review on sugar-snap cookies. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 48(9):824-839. DOI: 10.1080/10408390701719223
  25. Rahmawati, W.A., Nisa, F.C. 2014. Fortifikasi kalsium cangkang telur pada pembuatan cookies (kajian konsentrasi tepung cangkang telur dan baking powder). Jurnal Pangan dan Agroindustri, 3(3):1050-1061
  26. Ratnasari, I., Yuwono, S.S., Nusyam, H., Widjanarko, S.B. 2013. Extraction and characterization of gelatin from different fresh water fishes as alternative sources of gelatin. International Food Research Journal 20(6):3085–3091
  27. Rehena, Z., Ivakdalam, L.M. 2019. Pengaruh substitusi rumput laut terhadap kandungan serat cookies sagu. Agrikan: Jurnal Agribisnis Perikanan 12(1):157-161. DOI: 10.29239/j.agrikan.12.1.157-161
  28. Rubel, I.A., Pérez, E., Manrique, G.D., Genovese, D.B. 2015. Fibre enrichment of wheat bread with Jerusalem artichoke inulin: Effect on dough rheology and bread quality. Food Structure 3:21-29. DOI: 10.1016/j.foostr.2014.11.001
  29. Tarrega, A., Quiles, A., Morell, P., Fiszman, S., Hernando, I. 2017. Importance of consumer perceptions in fiber-enriched food products. A case study with sponge cakes. Food & Function 8(2):574-583. DOI: 10.1039/c6fo01022a
  30. Wijanarka, W., Soetarto, E.S., Dewi, K., Indrianto, A. 2013. Aktivitas inulinase oleh Pichia manshurica dan fusan f4 pada fermentasi batch dengan umbi dahlia (Dahlia sp) sebagai substrat. Reaktor 14(3):187-192. DOI: 10.14710/reaktor.14.3.187-192
  31. Yasinta, U.N.A., Dwiloka, B., Nurwantoro, N. 2017. Pengaruh subtitusi tepung terigu dengan tepung pisang terhadap sifat fisikokimia dan organoleptik cookies. Jurnal Aplikasi Teknologi Pangan 6(3):119-123. DOI: 10.17728/jatp.200
  32. Zhang, Y.Y., Song, Y., Hu, X.S., Liao, X.J., Ni, Y.Y., Li, Q.H. 2012. Effects of sugars in batter formula and baking conditions on 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and furfural formation in sponge cake models. Food Research International 49(1):439-445. DOI: 10.1016/j.foodres.2012.07.012
  33. Zhu, Z., He, J., Liu, G., Barba, F.J., Koubaa, M., Ding, L., Bals, O., Grimi, N., Vorobiev, E. 2016. Recent insights for the green recovery of inulin from plant food materials using non-conventional extraction technologies: a review. Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies 33:1-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.ifset.2015.12.023

Last update: 2021-02-27 19:07:08

No citation recorded.

Last update: 2021-02-27 19:07:09

No citation recorded.