Pengaruh Penambahan Beberapa Konsentrasi Gula terhadap Stabilitas Warna Ekstrak Antosianin Buah Rukem (Flacourtia rukam Zoll. & Mor.)

DOI: https://doi.org/10.17728/jatp.2581
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Article Metrics: (Click on the Metric tab below to see the detail)

Article Info
Submitted: 27-04-2018
Published: 11-01-2019
Section: Artikel Penelitian (Research Article)
Fulltext PDF Tell your colleagues Email the author

Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan pengaruh penambahan gula dengan konsentrasi yang bervariasi terhadap stabilitas warna ekstrak antosianin buah rukem yang terpapar cahaya lampu fluoresens berdasarkan kinetika degradasi warnanya dan menentukan konsentrasi gula yang optimal untuk meningkatkan stabilitas warna ekstrak antosianin buah rukem. Variasi konsentrasi gula yang digunakan adalah 20, 40, dan 60% (b/v). Uji stabilitas warna dilakukan terhadap ekstrak antosianin buah rukem yang disinari selama 10 jam dengan intensitas cahaya 3580, 4655 lux, dan 8544 lux. Metode yang digunakan yaitu pemodelan kinetika degradasi, dimana nilai konstanta laju degradasi (k) dan nilai waktu paruh (t1/2) dihitung berdasarkan orde reaksi yang sesuai. Degradasi antosianin mengikuti orde reaksi 0. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penambahan gula 20% mampu meningkatkan stabilitas warna ekstrak antosianin buah rukem dibandingkan dengan kontrol (tanpa penambahan gula), terlihat dari meningkatnya waktu paruh dari 54,82 jam menjadi 61,35 jam. Namun, pada penambahan gula 40 dan 60% dapat menurunkan stabilitas warnanya dengan menurunnya waktu paruh dari 42,52 jam menjadi 31,66 jam pada intensitas 3580 lux. Kecenderungan kenaikan dan penurunan waktu paruh yang sama juga terjadi pada intensitas cahaya 4655 lux dan 8544 lux. Kesimpulannya, penambahan gula mempengaruhi stabilitas warna ekstrak antosianin buah rukem yaitu dapat meningkatkan dan menurunkan stabilitasnya.

Effect of Various Concentration Sugar Addition on the Color Stability of Rukem Fruit Anthocyanin Extract (Flacourtia rukam Zoll. & Mor.)

This study is aimed to determine the effect of sugar addition with varying concentrations to the color stability of anthocyanin extract of rukem fruit exposed to fluorescent lamp lights based on color degradation kinetics and determining the optimal sugar concentration to improve color stability of anthocyanin extract of rukem fruit. Variations of sugar concentration were 20, 40, and 60% (w/v). The color stability test was performed on the anthocyanin extract of rukem fruit which was irradiated for 10 hours with the light intensity of 3580, 4655, and 8544 lux. The degradation kinetics modeling was used as method, where the value of the degradation rate constant (k) and half-life value (t1/2) were calculated according to the appropriate reaction order. Degradation of anthocyanin was analyzed using zero order reaction. The results showed that sugar addition at 20% could increase the stability of rukem fruit anthocyanin extract compared to control (without sugar addition), that was reflected by increase of half-life from 54.82  to 61.35 hours. However, addition of 40 and 60% sugar decreased the color stability with the half-life decline from 42.52 to 31.66 hours. The similar half-life increase and decrease also occured at the intensity of light 4655 and 8544 lux. As conclusion, sugar addition might increase and decrease of the color stability in the extract rukem fruit.

Keywords

antosianin; buah rukem; cahaya lampu fluoresens; penambahan gula; stabilitas warna

  1. Salsabila Eka Ghina Rana 
    Program Studi Kimia, Fakultas Sains dan Matematika, Universitas Kristen Satya Wacana, Salatiga, Indonesia
  2. Lydia Ninan Lestario 
    Program Studi Kimia, Fakultas Sains dan Matematika, Universitas Kristen Satya Wacana, Salatiga, Indonesia
  3. Yohanes Martono 
    Program Studi Kimia, Fakultas Sains dan Matematika, Universitas Kristen Satya Wacana, Salatiga, Indonesia
  1. Amin, K.A., II, H.A.H., Elsttar, A.H.A. 2010. Effect of food azo dyes tartrazine and carmoisine on biochemical parameters related to renal, hepatic function and oxidative stress biomarkers in young male rats. Food and Chemical Toxicology 48:2994-2999. DOI: 10.1016/j.fct.2010.07.039.
  2. Boranbayeva, T., Karadeniz, F., Yilmaz, E. 2014. Effect of storage on anthocyanin degradation in black Mulberry juice and concentrates. Food and Bioprocess Technology 7(7):1894-1902. DOI: 10.1007/s11947-014-1296-8.
  3. Cao, S., Liu, L., Lu, Q., Xu, Y., Pan, S., Wang, K. 2009. Integrated effects of asorbic acid, flavonoids and sugars on thermal degradation of anthocyanins in blood orange juice. European Food Research and Technology 228:975-983. DOI: 10.1007/s00217-009-1015-2.
  4. Elizarni., Firdausni., Anwar, H., Sari, R. 2014. Stabilitas ekstrak kurkumin kunyit dan klorofil daun pandan menggunakan α tocoferol dan dekstrin. Jurnal Litbang Industri 4(2):97-103. DOI: 10.24960/jli.v4i2.643.97-103.
  5. Fennema, R. 1996. Food Chemistry. 3th edition. Marcel Dekker, New York.
  6. Fitriyani, R., Lestario, L.N., Martono, Y. 2018. Jenis dan kandungan antosianin buah tomi-tomi. Jurnal Teknologi dan Industri Pangan 29(2):137-144. DOI: 10.6066/jtip.2018.29.2.137.
  7. Gross, J. 1987. Pigments in Fruits. Academic Press, London.
  8. Harborne, J.B. 1987. Metode Fitokimia Penuntun Cara Modern Menganalisis Tumbuhan. ITB, Bandung.
  9. He, J., Giusti, M.M. 2010. Anthocyanins: Natural colorants with health-promoting properties. Annual Review of Food Science and Technology 1:163-187. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.food. 080708.100754.
  10. Hosseini, S., Gharachorloo, M., Ghiassi-Tarzi, B., Ghavami, M. 2016. Evaluation of the organic acids ability for extraction of anthocyanins and phenolic compounds from different sources and their degradation kinetics during cold storage. Polish Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences 66(4):261-269. DOI: 10.1515/pjfns-2015-0057.
  11. Husna, N.E., Novita, M., Rohaya, S. 2013. Kandungan antosianin dan aktivitas antioksidan ubi jalar ungu segar dan produk olahannya. Agritech 33(3):296-302. DOI: 10.22146/agritech.9551.
  12. Ikram, E.H.K., Eng, H.K., Jalil, A.M.M., Ismail, A., Idris, S., Azlan, A., Nazri, H.S.M., Diton, N.A.M., Mokhtar, R.A.M. 2009. Antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content of Malaysian underutilized fruits. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 22:388-393. DOI: 10.1016/j.jfca.2009.04.001.
  13. Jiao, Y., Jiang, Y., Zhai, W., Yang, Z. 2012. Studies on antioxidant capacity of anthocyanin extract from purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.). African Journal of Biotechnology 11(27):7046-7054. DOI: 10.5897/AJB11.3859.
  14. Lestario, L.N., Rahayuni, E., Timotius, K.H. 2011. Kandungan antosianin dan identifikasi antosianidin dari kulit buah Jenetri (Eleaocarpus angustifolius Blume). Agritech 31(2):93–101. DOI: 10.22146/agritech.9731.
  15. Lestario, L.N., Yoga, M.K.W.C., Kristijanto, A.I. 2014. Stabilitas antosianin jantung pisang kepok (Musa paradisiaca L) terhadap cahaya sebagai pewarna agar-agar. Agritech 34(4):374-381. DOI: 10.22146/agritech.9431.
  16. Li, J., Walker, C.E., Faubion, J. M. 2011. Acidulant and oven type affect total anthocyanin content of blue corn cookies. Journal Science Food Agriculture 91:38-43. DOI: 10.1002/jsfa. 4173.
  17. Nikkah, E., Khayamy, M., Heidari., Jamee, R. 2007. Effect of sugar treatment on stability of anthocyanin pigments in berries. Journal of Biological Sciences 7(8):1412-1417. DOI: 10.3923/JBS.2007.1412.1417.
  18. Nusantara, Y.P., Lestario, L.N., Martono, Y. 2017. Pengaruh penambahan asam galat sebagai kopigmen antosianin murbei hitam (Morus nigra L.) terhadap stabilitas termal. Agritech 37(4):428-436. DOI: 10.22146/agritech.22963.
  19. Soeroso, E.G., Lestario, L.N., Martono, Y. 2017. Penambahan gula dapat meningkatkan stabilitas warna ekstrak antosianin buah murbei hitam yang terpapar cahaya lampu fluoresens. Jurnal Teknologi dan Industri Pangan 28(1):62-69. DOI: 10.6066/jtip.2017.28.1.62.
  20. Swadaya, T.P. 1987. Mengenal Tanaman Langka Indonesia. Penebar Swadaya, Jakarta.
  21. Zozio, S., Pallet, D., Dornier, M. 2011. Evaluation of anthocyanin stability during storage of a coloured drink made from extracts of the Andean blackberry (Rubus glaucus Benth.), açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) and black carrot (Daucus carota L.). Fruits 66(3):203–215. DOI: 10.1051/ fruits/2011030.