skip to main content

Effects of Fermented Tempeh Using Rhizopus oligosporus and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG on Body Weight, Lee Index, High Sensitivity C Reactive Protein and Lipid Profile of Obese Rats

1Department of Nutrition Science, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Diponegoro, Indonesia

2Department of Medical Biology and Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Diponegoro, Indonesia

3Department Pharmacology and Therapy, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Diponegoro, Indonesia

Received: 6 Feb 2023; Revised: 8 Apr 2023; Accepted: 11 Apr 2023; Available online: 30 Apr 2023; Published: 29 Apr 2023.
Open Access Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Biomedicine and Translational Research
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Citation Format:

Background: Tempeh is a fermented soybean containing isoflavones that shows good benefits again obesity. Co-fermentation of tempeh using  Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG could increase the bioavailability of isoflavones.

Objective: This study aimed to determine the effect of co-fermented tempeh using Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (tLGG) on body weight (B.W.), Lee Index, high sensitivity C Reactive Protein (hs-CRP), and lipid profile of obese rats. Total flavonoid and genistein were also measured.

Methods: Male Sprague Dawley rats (n=36, 200-to-215-gram, age eight weeks) were orally administered high fat and high sucrose diet (HFHS diet) for two weeks to induce obesity. After obesity was confirmed by checking Lee Index, rats were divided into six group and administered orally standard diet (normal control), HFHS diet (negative control), HFHS diet and 120 mg/kg B.W./day-orlistat (positive control), HFHS diet and 60 mg/kg B.W./day standard tempeh  with Rhizopus oligosporus (tS), HFHS diet and 60 mg/kg B.W./day tLGG, HFHS diet and 120 mg/kg B.W./day tLGG for four weeks. Body weight, Lee Index, hs-CRP, and lipid profile were analyzed. Total flavonoid and genistein were analyzed.

Results: 120 mg/kg B.W./day tLGG group exhibited significantly lower body weight gains, Lee Index, hs-CRP, triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL, and higher HDL compared to negative control and tS group (p<0,001), however, positive control group exhibited lower body weight gains compared to tLGG group (p<0,001). Nevertheless, tLGG group exhibited lower Lee Index compared to positive control group.  

 tLGG showed higher flavonoid and genistein level than tS.

Conclusion: Administration of 120 mg/kg B.W./day tLGG showed significantly lower Lee Index compared to all groups given HFHS diet, however, positive control group showed lower body weight gains compared to tLGG group. tLGG also improved hs-CRP and lipid profile two times better than negative control group. tLGG increased total flavonoids and genistein level.

Note: This article has supplementary file(s).

Fulltext View|Download |  Data Analysis
Anti-Obesity Effects of Fermented Tempeh Using Rhizopus oligosporus and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG on Dyslipidemic Rats
Subject Tempeh;Lactic acid bacteria;High fat diet;Obesity
Type Data Analysis
  Download (1MB)    Indexing metadata
Keywords: Tempeh; Lactic acid bacteria; High fat diet; Obesity

Article Metrics:

  1. World Health Organization. Obesity and overweight fact sheet. 2021 (cited 2021 Oct 18]). World Health Organization. Available from:
  2. Hruby A, Manson JE, Qi L, Malik VS, Rimm EB, Sun Q, Willet WC, Hu FB. Determinants and Consequences of Obesity. Am J Public Health. 2016;106(9):1656-62. DOI: 10.2105/AJPH.2016.303326
  3. Nimptsch K, Konigorski S, Pischon T. Diagnosis of obesity and use of obesity biomarkers in science and clinical medicine. Metabolism. 2019;92:61-70. DOI: 10.1016/j.metabol.2018.12.006
  4. Tak YJ, Lee SY. Anti-Obesity Drugs: Long-Term Efficacy and Safety: An Updated Review. World J Mens Health. 2021;39(2):208. DOI:
  5. Xianli W, Jie K. Phytochemicals in soy and their health effects. INTECH Open Access Publisher. Rasooli (Ed.), Phytochemicals – bioactivities and impact on health. 2011: 43–76. DOI: 10.5772/26026
  6. Hsiao Y, Ho C, Pan M. Bioavailability and health benefits of major isoflavone aglycones and their metabolites. Journal of Functional Foods. 2020;74:104164. DOI:
  7. Licandro H, Ho PH, Nguyen TKC, Petchkongkaew A, Nguyen HV, Chu-Ky S, Nguyen TVA, Lorn D, Wache Y. How fermentation by lactic acid bacteria can address safety issues in legumes food products?. Food Control. 2020;110:106957. DOI:
  8. Marazza JA, Nazareno MA, de Giori GS, Garro MS. Enhancement of the antioxidant capacity of soymilk by fermentation with Lactobacillus rhamnosus. Journal of Functional Foods. 2012;4(3):594-601. DOI:
  9. Kim B, Park K, Ji Y, Park S, Holzapfel W, Hyun C. Protective effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG against dyslipidemia in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 2016;473(2):530-6. DOI:
  10. Xu H, Wang J, Cai J, Feng W, Wang Y, Liu Q, Cai L. Protective Effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and its Supernatant against Myocardial Dysfunction in Obese Mice Exposed to Intermittent Hypoxia is Associated with the Activation of Nrf2 Pathway. Int J Biol Sci. 2019;15(11):2471-83. DOI:
  11. Cheng Y, Liu J. Effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG on Energy Metabolism, Leptin Resistance, and Gut Microbiota in Mice with Diet-Induced Obesity. Nutrients. 2020;12(9):2557. DOI:
  12. Petruláková M, Valík Ľ. Legumes as Potential Plants for Probiotic Strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. Acta Univ Agric Silvic Mendelianae Brun. 2015;63(5):1505-11. DOI: 10.11118/actaun201563051505
  13. Liu B, Fu N, Woo MW, Chen XD. Heat stability of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and its cellular membrane during droplet drying and heat treatment. Food Research International. 2018;112:56-65. DOI:
  14. Li N, Russell WM, Douglas-Escobar M, Hauser N, Lopez M, Neu J. Live and Heat-Killed Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG: Effects on Proinflammatory and Anti-Inflammatory Cytokines/Chemokines in Gastrostomy-Fed Infant Rats. Pediatr Res. 2009;66(2):203-7. DOI:
  15. Nout M, Kiers J. Tempe fermentation, innovation and functionality: update into the third millenium. J Appl Microbiol. 2005;98(4):789-805. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2672.2004.02471.x
  16. Lee M.O. Determination of the Surface Area of the white rat with its application to the expression of metabolic results. American Journal of Physiology-Legacy Content. 1929;89:24–33
  17. Mingrone G, Castagneto M. The Pathophysiology of Obesity. In: Lucchese M., Scopinaro N. (eds) Minimally Invasive Bariatric and Metabolic Surgery. Springer, Cham; 2015: 17-23. DOI:
  18. Heymsfield SB, Wadden TA. Mechanisms, Pathophysiology, and Management of Obesity. N Engl J Med. 2017;376(3):254-66. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMra1514009.PMID:28099824
  19. Sanchez M, Darimont C, Drapeau V, Emady-Azar S, Lepage M, Rezzonico E, Ngom-Bru C, Berger B, Philippe L, Ammon-Zuffrey C, Leone P, Chevrier G, St-Amand E, Marette A, Dore J, Tremblay A. Effect ofLactobacillus rhamnosusCGMCC1.3724 supplementation on weight loss and maintenance in obese men and women. Br J Nutr. 2014;111(8):1507-19. DOI: 10.1017/S0007114513003875
  20. Cao S, Zhao C, Xu X, Tang G, Corke H, Gan R, Li H. Dietary plants, gut microbiota, and obesity: Effects and mechanisms. Trends in Food Science & Technology. 2019;92:194-204. DOI:
  21. Lee CS, Park MH, Kim BK, Kim SH. Antiobesity Effect of Novel Probiotic Strains in a Mouse Model of High-Fat Diet–Induced Obesity. Probiotics & Antimicro Prot. 2021;13(4):1054-67.DOI:
  22. Redinger RN. The pathophysiology of obesity and its clinical manifestations. Gastroenterol Hepatol (N Y). 2007;3(11):856-63. PMID: 21960798
  23. Zhu Y, Xian X, Wang Z, Bi Y, Chen Q, Han X, Tang D, Chen R. Research Progress on the Relationship between Atherosclerosis and Inflammation. Biomolecules. 2018;8(3):E80. PMID: 30142970
  24. Kyriakopoulou K, Dekkers B, Van der Goot AJ. Plant-Based Meat Analogues. In: Galanakis CM, editor. Sustainable Meat Production and Processing. Academic Press; 2019:103–126. DOI:
  25. Chen Y, Hsieh S, Hu C. Effects of Red-Bean Tempeh with Various Strains of Rhizopus on GABA Content and Cortisol Level in Zebrafish. Microorganisms. 2020;8(9):1330.DOI: 10.3390/microorganisms8091330
  26. Huang Y, Wu B, Chu Y, Chang W, Wu M. Effects of Tempeh Fermentation with Lactobacillus plantarum and Rhizopus oligosporus on Streptozotocin-Induced Type II Diabetes Mellitus in Rats. Nutrients. 2018;10(9):1143. DOI:
  27. Wang T, Yan H, Lu Y, Li X, Wang X, Shan Y, Yi Y, Liu B, Zhou Y, Lu X. Anti-obesity effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus LS-8 and Lactobacillus crustorum MN047 on high-fat and high-fructose diet mice base on inflammatory response alleviation and gut microbiota regulation. Eur J Nutr. 2020;59(6):2709-28. DOI:

Last update:

No citation recorded.

Last update:

No citation recorded.