skip to main content

The role of Zinc Intake in Serotonin and Cortisol Level in Patient with Depression

Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Diponegoro, Indonesia

Received: 7 Mar 2022; Revised: 20 Mar 2022; Accepted: 25 Apr 2022; Available online: 17 Apr 2022; Published: 28 Apr 2022.
Open Access Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Biomedicine and Translational Research
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Citation Format:

Background: Low zinc levels affects the relationship between the glutamatergic and serotonergic systems in major depressive disorders that cause stress and inflammation. Decreased zinc in the hippocampus can activates the HPA axis associated with an increase in cortisol. Several studies documented the relationship between zinc and clinical depression, however further research including biological measurements is needed to support these studies.

Objective: To observe the correlation between zinc intake with serotonin and cortisol serum in patient with depression

Methods: This was an observational study with cross sectional design. Subjects were patients with depression who came to Dr. Kariadi Hospital, Tugurejo Hospital, Diponegoro National Hospital and Permata Medika Hospital met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used to assess daily zinc intake. The levels of serum serotonin and cortisol were measured using ELISA technique.

Results: Of the 53 subjects, there was significant correlation between zinc intake with serotonin serum level (p=0,038), however there was no correlation between zinc intake with cortisol serum level (p=0,845)

Conclusion: The higher zinc intake the higher serotonin serum level, however there was no correlation between zinc intake with cortisol serum level in patients with depression.


Note: This article has supplementary file(s).

Fulltext View|Download |  common.other
Type Other
  Download (3MB)    Indexing metadata
Keywords: cortisol; depression; FFQ; serotonin; zinc intake

Article Metrics:

  1. World Health Organization. Depression and Other Common Mental Disorders: Global Health Estimates. Geneva: WHO Press; 2017
  2. Litbang Kementerian Kesehatan RI. Riset Kesehatan Dasar. Jakarta: Kemenkes RI; 2018
  3. Al-Harbi KS. Treatment-resistant depression: Therapeutic trends, challenges, and future directions. Patient Prefer Adherence. 2012;6:369–88
  4. Opie RS, Itsiopoulos C, Parletta N, Sanchez-Villegas A, Akbaraly TN, Ruusunen A, et al. Dietary recommendations for the prevention of depression. Nutr Neurosci. 2017;20(3):161–71
  5. Marx W, Moseley G, Berk M, Jacka F. Nutritional psychiatry: The present state of the evidence. Proc Nutr Soc. 2017;76(4):427–36
  6. Wang J, Um P, Dickerman BA, Liu J. Zinc, magnesium, selenium and depression: A review of the evidence, potential mechanisms and implications. Nutrients. 2018;10(5):1–19
  7. Portbury SD, Adlard PA. Zinc signal in brain diseases. Int J Mol Sci. 2017;18(12)
  8. Maron E, Tõru I, Hirvonen J, Tuominen L, Lumme V, Vasar V, et al. Gender differences in brain serotonin transporter availability in panic disorder. J Psychopharmacol. 2011;25(7):952–9
  9. Sathyanarayana Rao T, Asha M, Ramesh B, Jagannatha Rao K. Understanding nutrition, depression and mental illnesses. Indian J Psychiatry. 2008;50(2):77
  10. Styczen K, Sowa-kuæma M, Siwek M, Dudek D, Reczy W, Szewczyk B, et al. The serum zinc concentration as a potential biological marker in patients with major depressive disorder. Metab Brain Disord. 2017;32:97–103
  11. Szewczyk B, Poleszak E, Wlaź P, Wróbel A, Blicharska E, Cichy A, et al. The involvement of serotonergic system in the antidepressant effect of zinc in the forced swim test. Prog Neuro-Psychopharmacology Biol Psychiatry. 2009;33(2):323–9
  12. Satała G, Duszyńska B, Stachowicz K, Rafalo A, Pochwat B, Luckhart C, et al. Concentration-Dependent Dual Mode of Zn Action at Serotonin 5-HT1A Receptors: In Vitro and In Vivo Studies. Mol Neurobiol. 2016;53(10):6869–81
  13. Cowen P, Browning M. What has serotonin to do with depression ? World Psychiatry. 2015;14:2(June):11–3
  14. Bonaventura P, Benedetti G, Albarede F, Miossec P. Zinc and its role in immunity and inflammation. Autoimmun Rev. 2014;14 (4):277–85
  15. Brandao-Neto J, De Mendonca B., Shuhama T, Marchini J, WP P, Tornero M. Zinc Acutely and Temporarily Inhibits Adrenal Cortisol Secretion in Humans A Preliminary Report. Biol Trace Elem Researcj. 1990;24:83–9
  16. Fitri N, Jafar N, Indriasari R. Validation Study Semi- Quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire with 24-hour Food Recall on Micronutrition Intake in Adolescent at Athirah High School Makassar. 2013;1–13
  17. Menteri Kesehatan Republik Indonesia. Peraturan Menteri Kesehatan Republik Indonesia Nomor 28 Tahun 2019 tentang Angka Kecukupan Gizi yang Dianjurkan untuk Masyarakat Indonesia. 2019;15–6
  18. Gibson RS. Principles of Nutritional Assessment. 2nd ed. New York: Oxford University Press; 2015
  19. Szeitz A, Bandiera SM. Analysis and measurement of serotonin. Biomed Chromatogr. 2018;32(1)
  20. Li Z, Wang W, Xin X, Song X, Zhang D. Association of total zinc, iron, copper and selenium intakes with depression in the US adults. J Affect Disord. 2018;228(November 2017):68–74
  21. Doboszewska U, Wlaź P, Nowak G, Radziwoń-Zaleska M, Cui R, Młyniec K. Zinc in the Monoaminergic Theory of Depression: Its Relationship to Neural Plasticity. Neural Plast. 2017;2017
  22. Bonaventura P, Benedetti G, Albarède F, Miossec P. Zinc and its role in immunity and inflammation. Autoimmun Rev. 2015;14(4):277–85
  23. Lee DY, Kim E, Choi MH. Technical and clinical aspects of cortisol as a biochemical marker of chronic stress. BMB Rep. 2015;48(4):209–16
  24. Way BM, Taylor SE. The Serotonin Transporter Promoter Polymorphism Is Associated with Cortisol Response to Psychosocial Stress. Biol Psychiatry. 2010;67(5):487–92
  25. Adam EK, Quinn ME, Tavernier R, McQuillan MT, Dahlke KA, Gilbert KE. Diurnal cortisol slopes and mental and physical health outcomes: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2017;83:25–41
  26. Nam SB, Kim K, Kim BS, Im HJ, Lee SH, Kim SJ, et al. The Effect of Obesity on the Availabilities of Dopamine and Serotonin Transporters. Sci Rep. 2018;8(1):1–6
  27. Manthey L, Leeds C, Giltay EJ, van Veen T, Vreeburg SA, Penninx BWJH, et al. Antidepressant use and salivary cortisol in depressive and anxiety disorders. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2011;21(9):691–9

Last update:

No citation recorded.

Last update:

No citation recorded.