Emisi Karbon dan Produk Domestik Bruto: Investigasi Hipotesis Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) pada Negara Berpendapatan Menengah di Kawasan ASEAN

Muhamad Ameer Noor  -  Departemen Ekonomi, Fakultas Ekonomi dan Bisnis, Universitas Brawijaya, Indonesia
*Putu Mahardika Adi Saputra orcid scopus  -  Departemen Ekonomi, Fakultas Ekonomi dan Bisnis, Universitas Brawijaya, Indonesia
Received: 12 Aug 2020; Published: 31 Dec 2020.
Open Access Copyright (c) 2020 Jurnal Wilayah dan Lingkungan
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

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Abstract
Policymakers have been concerned with carbon emissions due to the risk of global warming. In accordance, many studies on Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) use carbon emissions as the proxy of environmental degradation. This study aims to investigate the existence of EKC and identify variations of relationships between carbon emissions and GDP per capita in ASEAN middle-income countries. The study was conducted on Indonesia, Thailand, Philippines, and Malaysia for 1971-2014 time series data using a simultaneous model (2SLS) for each country. The main variables studied are GDP per capita, Square of GDP per Capita, and Carbon Emissions supported by other variables that act as control variables. Validation of EKC existence determined by GDP and GDP squared influence on carbon emissions, while variations of relationship between GDP and carbon emissions are based on the result of simultaneous regressions. The study results found that the existence of the EKC cannot be validated in all countries because energy and transportation policies in each country have not successful to reduce the emisssion, on the other hand, carbon emissions were found to have a positive unidirectional influence on GDP in all countries. Carbon emissions to GDP coefficients comparison implied that Thailand, Indonesia, Philippines, and Malaysia respectively ranked highest to lowest in CO2 efficiency. This study recommends that carbon emission reduction policies in the four countries should be strengthened with a focus on facilitating the adoption of environmentally friendly technologies from developed countries to gain trade-offs between the economy and environment.
Keywords: ASEAN; carbon emission; environmental kuznets curve; middle income countries

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