Skrining Dan Seleksi Bakteri Simbion Spons Penghasil Enzim Ekstraseluler Sebagai Agen Bioremediasi Bahan Organik Dan Biokontrol Vibriosis Pada Budidaya Udang

*Wilis Arii Setyati  -  Departemen Ilmu Kelautan, Fakultas Perikanan dan Ilmu Kelautan, Universitas Diponegoro, Indonesia
Ahmad Saddam Habibi  -  Departemen Ilmu Kelautan, Fakultas Perikanan dan Ilmu Kelautan, Universitas Diponegoro, Indonesia
Subagiyo Subagiyo  -  Departemen Ilmu Kelautan, Fakultas Perikanan dan Ilmu Kelautan, Universitas Diponegoro, Indonesia
Ali Ridlo  -  Departemen Ilmu Kelautan, Fakultas Perikanan dan Ilmu Kelautan, Universitas Diponegoro, Indonesia
Nirwani Soenardjo  -  Departemen Ilmu Kelautan, Fakultas Perikanan dan Ilmu Kelautan, Universitas Diponegoro, Indonesia
Rini Pramesti  -  Departemen Ilmu Kelautan, Fakultas Perikanan dan Ilmu Kelautan, Universitas Diponegoro, Indonesia
Received: 18 Jul 2016; Published: 18 Jul 2016.
Open Access Copyright (c) 2016 Jurnal Kelautan Tropis


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Abstract

The rapid cultivation of aquaculture with the application of intensive systems in recent years, has raised problems in the form of a decrease in the carrying capacity of ponds for the life of aquaculture organisms. The further impact caused is the occurrence of a series of diseases and damage to environmental conditions. Anticipatory measures through the application of bioremediation are solutions to prevent more serious damage. In the bioremediation process, enzymes play the role of catalysts that accelerate biochemical reactions in ponds of soil and water. Bacteria associated with sponges have various bioactive compounds that can inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria. The purpose of this study is isolation and screening of bacteria associated with sponges that have extracellular enzyme activity (proteolytic, amylolytic, cellulolytic, and lipolytic) and antibacterial activity, as well as knowing the interaction of antagonism properties among the best isolates, and phenotypic identification of bacterial species. This research was conducted in 4 stages: sample collection, isolation, selection, and identification. The results showed that the total sponge symbiotic bacteria obtained were 15 isolates with the potential of 15 proteolytic isolates, 12 amylolytic isolates, 12 lipolytic isolates, and 4 cellulolytic isolates. There were 10 isolates having antibacterial activity against Vibrio harveyi and 2 isolates had antibacterial activity against Vibrio alginolyticus. The best bacterial isolates SP.1.3, SP.5.1, and SP.5.3 have no antagonistic activity between the three. Phenotypic identification of 3 isolates alleged that isolates SP.1.3, SP.5.1, and SP.5.2 were identified as Bacillus sp., Acinetobacter sp., And Pseudomonas sp.


Pesatnya kegiatan budidaya perikanan dengan penerapan sistem intensif dalam beberapa tahun terakhir, telah memunculkan permasalahan berupa penurunan daya dukung tambak bagi kehidupan organisme budidaya. Dampak lanjut yang ditimbulkan adalah terjadinya serangkaian penyakit dan kerusakan kondisi lingkungan. Langkah antisipatif melalui penerapan bioremediasi merupakan solusi untuk mencegah kerusakan yang lebih serius. Dalam proses bioremediasi, enzim memainkan peran katalis yang mempercepat reaksi biokimia di kolam tanah dan air. Bakteri yang berasosiasi dengan spons memiliki beragam senyawa bioaktif yang dapat menghambat pertumbuhan bakteri patogen. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah isolasi dan skrining bakteri yang berasosiasi dengan spons yang memiliki aktivitas enzim ekstraseluler (proteolitik, amilolitik, selulolitik, dan lipolitik) dan aktivitas antibakteri, serta mengetahui interaksi sifat antagonisme antar isolat terbaik, dan identifikasi spesies bakteri secara fenotipik. Penelitian ini dilakukan dalam 4 tahap: koleksi sampel, isolasi, seleksi, dan identifikasi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa total bakteri simbion spons yang diperoleh 15 isolat dengan potensi 15 isolat proteolitik, 12 isolat amilolitik, 12 isolat lipolitik, dan 4 isolat selulolitik. Terdapat 10 isolat memiliki aktivitas antibakteri terhadap Vibrio harveyi dan 2 isolat memiliki aktivitas antibakteri terhadap Vibrio alginolyticus. Isolat bakteri terbaik SP.1.3, SP.5.1, dan SP.5.3 tidak memiliki aktivitas saling antagonis antar ketiganya. Identifikasi fenotipik dari 3 isolat diduga bahwa isolat SP.1.3, SP.5.1, dan SP.5.2 diidentifikasi sebagai Bacillus sp., Acinetobacter sp., dan Pseudomonas sp.

 

 

Keywords: Bakteri simbion spons; enzim ekstraseluler; bioremediasi; vibriosis; Sponge symbiotic bacteria; extracellular enzymes; bioremediation

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