Profile of Hypospadias Cases in Central Java, Indonesia

*Ziske Maritska  -  Faculty of Medicine Diponegoro University, Indonesia
Ardy Santosa  -  dr. Kariadi Semarang Hospital, Indonesia
Mahayu Dewi Ariani  -  Faculty of Medicine Diponegoro University, Indonesia
Achmad Zulfa Juniarto  -  Faculty of Medicine Diponegoro University, Indonesia
Sultana MH Faradz  -  Faculty of Medicine Diponegoro University, Indonesia
Received: 2 Mar 2015; Published: 28 Aug 2015.
Open Access
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Abstract
Background: Hypospadia is believed to be a multifactorial disease.  The risk factors that may induce the formation of hypospadias are environmental factors, endocrine disruptors, and genetic factors. The aim of this study was to describe the profile of hypospadias patients who visited the Center for Biomedical Research (CEBIOR), Faculty of Medicine, Diponegoro University, Semarang, Indonesia.

Methods: This study is an observational study, using patients’ medical record in CEBIOR from 2010 to 2012. The hypospadias cases were classified into syndromic, isolated and severe hypospadias based on their phenotype. The history of pregnancy, birth characteristics, and family history of the patients were described.

Results: There were 120 cases of hypospadias, consisted of 48.33% severe hypospadias, 41.67% mild isolated hypospadias and 10% syndromic
hypospadias. There were 38.33% hypospadias cases whose mothers were being exposed to repellant usage and 39.17% cases whose fathers were smoking. Forty (33.33%) probands’ mothers were aged above 35 years old when they gave birth to their affected son.

Conclusion: Majority of hypospadias cases were severe and mild isolated. Environtmental factors including maternal age more than 35 years old, use of repellant, and smoking fathers were found in this study.  

Keywords: Hypospadia profile; Indonesia

Article Metrics:

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Last update: 2021-02-27 20:46:58

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Last update: 2021-02-27 20:46:58

No citation recorded.