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Kandungan Pigmen Fotosintetik dan Total Fenol Daun Mangrove Api-Api [Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Vierh] pada Tambak dan Pantai Mangunharjo Semarang

*Tia Bela Aprilliana  -  Program Studi Biologi, Fakultas Sains dan Matematika, Universitas Diponegoro, Jl. Prof. Soedarto, SH, Tembalang, Semarang 50275, Indonesia, Indonesia
Munifatul Izzati scopus  -  Program Studi Biologi, Fakultas Sains dan Matematika, Universitas Diponegoro, Jl. Prof. Soedarto, SH, Tembalang, Semarang 50275, Indonesia, Indonesia
Sri Darmanti orcid scopus  -  Program Studi Biologi, Fakultas Sains dan Matematika, Universitas Diponegoro, Jl. Prof. Soedarto, SH, Tembalang, Semarang 50275, Indonesia, Indonesia
Endah Dwi Hastuti scopus  -  Program Studi Biologi, Fakultas Sains dan Matematika, Universitas Diponegoro, Jl. Prof. Soedarto, SH, Tembalang, Semarang 50275, Indonesia, Indonesia
Open Access Copyright 2021 Buletin Anatomi dan Fisiologi (Bulletin of Anatomy and Physiology)

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Abstract

Avicennia marina merupakan mangrove mayor yang mampu bertahan hidup di kondisi ekstrim seperti intensitas cahaya, suhu dan kadar garam tinggi. Kondisi ekstrim berpengaruh terhadap sintesis dan reduksi pigmen fotosintetik. Cekaman intensitas cahaya dan salinitas memicu A. marina membentuk fenol sebagai senyawa pertahanan pada kondisi kurang menguntungkan. A. marina pada kawasan Mangunharjo tumbuh baik pada lingkungan pantai dan tambak. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui pengaruh lingkungan pantai dan tambak terhadap kandungan pigmen fotosintetik dan total fenol daun A. marina. Penelitian dilakukan dengan metode observasi dengan melibatkan lokasi pantai dan tambak. Penelitian menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL) satu faktor organ daun A. marina yang hidup di lingkungan pantai dan tambak. Daerah pengamatan dibagi menjadi 6 titik pengambilan sampel. Parameter penelitian yang diamati adalah intensitas cahaya, suhu, salinitas, pigmen fotosintetik (klorofil a, klorofil b, karotenoid) dan total fenol daun A. marina. Analisis data menggunakan Uji T dengan taraf kepercayaan 95%. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa daun A. marina di pantai memiliki kandungan pigmen fotosintetik dan total fenol lebih rendah dibanding tambak.  Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa lingkungan pantai dan tambak berpengaruh nyata terhadap kandungan pigmen fotosintetik dan fenol. Intensitas cahaya dan salinitas tinggi di pantai mengganggu pembentukan klorofil dan Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase(PAL).

 

Avicennia marina is a major mangrove that is able to survive in extreme conditions such as light intensity, temperature and high salt content. Extreme conditions affect the synthesis and reduction of photosynthetic pigments. The stress of light intensity and salinity triggered A. marina to form phenol as a defense compound under unfavorable conditions. A. marina in the Mangunharjo area grows well in coastal and pond environments. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the coastal and pond environment on the content of photosynthetic pigments and total phenol in the leaves of A. marina. The study was conducted using the observation method involving the location of the beach and ponds. The study used a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with one factor of A. marina leaf organ that lives in the coastal and pond environment. The observation area are divided into 6 sampling points. Parameters observed were light intensity, temperature, salinity, photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotenoids) and total phenol of A. marina leaves. Data analysis used T test with 95% confidence level. The results showed that the leaves of A. marina on the beach had lower photosynthetic pigments and total phenol content than those in ponds. This shows that the coastal environment and ponds have a significant effect on the content of photosynthetic pigments and phenols. Light intensity and high salinity on the beach interfere with the formation of chlorophyll and Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase (PAL).

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Keywords: Avicennia marina; intensitas cahaya; salinitas; pigmen fotosintetik; fenol
Funding: Universitas Diponegoro under contract 329-47/UN7.6.1/PP/2020.

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