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Analisis Karakteristik dan Peran Strategi Migrasi Domestik dan Internasional pada Penghidupan Rumah Tangga Migran (Studi Kasus: Desa Padas, Desa Jono, dan Desa Gawan, Kecamatan Tanon, Kabupaten Sragen)

*Mada Sophianingrum  -  Departemen of Urban and Regional Planning, Universitas Diponegoro, Jl. Prof. Sudarto, SH, Tembalang, Semarang,, Indonesia
Melisa Angelina Manurung  -  Departemen Perencanaan Wilayah dan Kota, Universitas Diponegoro, Indonesia
Prihadi Nugroho orcid scopus publons  -  Departemen Perencanaan Wilayah dan Kota, Universitas Diponegoro, Indonesia
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Abstract
Penduduk pedesaan dikenal sebagai kelompok masyarakat yang memiliki kemampuan adaptasi yang baik terhadap tekanan dan risiko pada penghidupan mereka. Salah satu bentuk adaptasi penduduk pedesaan yaitu dengan melakukan strategi migrasi. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk menganalisis peran strategi migrasi yang dilakukan oleh rumah tangga migran di Desa Padas, Desa Jono, dan Desa Gawan. Penelitian menggunakan metode kualitatif dengan pendekatan studi kasus. Sebagai acuan dasar penelitian kerangka kerja penghidupan berkelanjutan pedesaan digunakan dalam penelitian untuk mendapatkan gambaran kondisi penghidupan rumah tangga yang detail dan komprehensif. 24 migran terpilih untuk diwawancarai dengan menggunakan teknik purposive sampling dan snowballing sampling. Selanjutnya dilakukan penggalian informasi dengan wawancara mendalam melalui telepon atau via online. Tahapan analisis dilakukan secara bertahap menjadi tiga tahapan. Oleh karena itu, temuan studi dari tahap analisis pertama digunakan sebagai input pada tahap berikutnya. Hasilnya menunjukkan bahwa peran strategi migrasi yang terjadi di Desa Padas, Desa Jono, dan Desa Gawan dipengaruhi oleh waktu migrasi, perbedaan karakteristik sumber daya/modal penghidupan, konteks kerentanan pada penghidupan, serta karakteristik strategi migrasi yang terjadi. Pada skala wilayah, meskipun terdapat perbedaan karakteristik sumber daya/modal penghidupan antara ketiga desa, namun peran migrasi tetap sama. Sementara itu, peran strategi migrasi dapat dilihat lebih jelas berdasarkan waktu terjadinya migrasi (periodesasi migrasi) yang terjadi di ketiga desa.

 

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Keywords: kemiskinan; migrasi penduduk usia produktif; migrasi perdesaan; pembangunan berkelanjutan; remitan; strategi penghidupan berkelanjutan desa

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