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Analisis Spasial Tekstur Tanah Terhadap Penilaian Risiko Bencana Hidrometeorologi di Kecamatan Rumbia-Kelara, Kabupaten Jeneponto

*Asmita Ahmad orcid scopus  -  Department of Soil Science, Agriculture Faculty , Hasanuddin University, Indonesia
Meutia Farida orcid scopus publons  -  Fakultas Teknik, Universitas Hasanuddin, Indonesia
Nirmala Juita orcid scopus  -  Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Hasanuddin, Indonesia
Open Access Copyright (c) 2022 Jurnal Wilayah dan Lingkungan
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Abstract
Tekstur tanah dapat menjadi salah satu kunci dalam menjawab berbagai permasalahan kerentanan tanah terhadap kejadian bencana hidrometeorologi di Sulawesi Selatan. Beberapa hasil penelitian menunjukkan respon positif terkait hubungan tekstur tanah dengan kejadian bencana alam hidrometeorologi, tetapi bagaimana pola penyebaran tekstur tanah secara spasial belum banyak dikaitkan terhadap kejadian bencana hidrometeorologi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk melakukan analisis spasial terkait peranan tekstur tanah terhadap kejadian bencana hidrometeorologi (longsor dan banjir bandang), dengan mengambil studi kasus pada Daerah Aliran Sungai (DAS) Kelara di Kecamatan Rumbia-Kelara, Kabupaten Jeneponto. Sampel tanah diambil secara purposive sampling pada wilayah DAS Kelara pada lapisan top soil dan subsoil. Analisis tekstur dilakukan dengan metode hydrometer, model penyebaran fraksi tekstur tanah dengan metode inverse distance weighting, dan penilaian resiko bencana dilakukan dengan metode pembobotan dengan field calculator. Penggunaan lahan dominan adalah pertanian lahan kering campuran pada kelas lereng 25-45%. Tekstur tanah didominasi lempung liat berdebu sampai liat berdebu. Penyebaran fraksi liat dominan pada bagian hulu DAS Kelara sebesar 37,15-49,71%, sehingga memiliki daya ekspansi tanah yang cukup tinggi serta dapat meningkatkan aliran permukaan. Fraksi debu tersebar merata pada bagian hulu dan tengah wilayah DAS Kelara sebesar 48,49-59,71%, mengakibatkan tanah mudah terdispersi dan memicu kejadian longsor dan banjir bandang. Tingkat kerawanan terjadinya bencana hidrometerologi di wilayah DAS Kelara memiliki kelas sangat rawan sebesar 63,21% dari total luas wilayah DAS, yang menunjukkan tingginya potensi terjadinya longsor-banjir bandang pada intensitas curah hujan tinggi. Potensi ini memerlukan tindakan mitigasi untuk meminimalkan kejadian bencana serta perlu tindakan yang tegas dari pihak pemerintah daerah dan pusat untuk perlindungan dan pemanfaatan daerah-daerah hulu DAS agar dapat keberlanjutan.
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Keywords: bencana; DAS Kelara; hidrometeorologi; Jeneponto; tekstur tanah

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