Malaria, hepatitis B and HIV /AIDS, and their co-infection among Patients Visiting Health Centres in Akure, Nigeria

*Olajide Joseph Afolabi -  Federal University of Technology Akure, Nigeria
A Aremo -  Federal University of Technology Akure, Nigeria
Oluwabunmi H -  Federal University of Technology Akure, Nigeria
I Itansanmi -  Federal University of Technology Akure, Nigeria
Anuoluwa I -  Federal University of Technology Akure, Nigeria
Received: 22 Oct 2018; Published: 31 Dec 2018.
Open Access
Citation Format:
Article Info
Section: Original Research Articles
Language: EN
Full Text:
Supp. File(s):
Conflict of Interest
Type Research Instrument
  Download (138KB)    Indexing metadata
Statistics: 246 174

Co-infection is the simultaneous infection of host by multiple pathogenic species, which may co-exist together or not. In this study, the co-infection of malaria, HIV/AIDS and hepatitis B was investigated, using four different locations in Akure, Ondo State. Blood samples were aseptically collected from the left thumbs of 500 respondents using sterile lancets. Thin and thick smear of the blood samples were observed for malaria parasites using X100 magnification of the light microscope. Hepatitis B and HIV/AIDS were tested using diagnostic test kits. The results show that highest prevalence of malaria was observed in Oba-Ile (82.09%) among age group 31-40 years (92.72%).  The lowest prevalence was found in Ala-Ajagbusi (73.17%) among age group 21-30 years (70.03%). Highest prevalence of hepatitis (7.06%) was observed in Orita-Obele while the lowest prevalence was observed in Ala- Ajagbusi (4.88%).  HIV/AIDS infection was found Orita-Obele (1.76%, n=3) and Ala-Ajagbusi (2.44%, n=2). The results further show that all the individuals that tested positive to hepatitis B virus and HIV also tested positive to malaria. Also, 3 of the 5 individuals infected with HIV/AIDS tested positive to hepatitis B virus.  Similarly, malaria, hepatitis B virus and HIV cohabit in 2 individuals; 1 in age group 21-30 years and 1 in age group 31-40 years. Coinfection of malaria with hepatitis and HIV/AIDS suggests that malaria is an opportunistic infection among the hepatitis and AIDS patients. This calls for prompt malaria treatment among the immunocompromised patients. More so, there should be adequate and consistent public health advocacy programs, to enlighten the populace about malaria, hepatitis B and HIV/AIDS in order to completely mitigate the disease spread in the area.

Note: This article has supplementary file(s).

Prevalence: Co-infection: Malaria: Hepatitis B; HIV/AIDS

Article Metrics:

  1. World Health Organization (WHO) (2014). Methods for Surveillance of Antimalarial Drug Efficacy. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2014.
  2. Caraballo, H. (2014). "Emergency Department Management of Mosquito-borne Illness:Malaria, Dengue, and West Nile Virus". Emergency Medicine Practice, 16:1-23.
  3. Afolabi, O.J., Simon-Oke, I.A., Sorungbe, A.A., Alao, A.A. (2015): Prevalence of Malaria among Biological Science Students in Federal University of Technology Akure, Nigeria. Nature and Science, 13 (2): 6-12.
  4. Behrens, R. H., Nadjm, B. (2012). "Malaria: An Update for Physicians". Infectious Disease Clinics of North America, 26 (2): 243–259.
  5. Pasquetto, V., Guidotti, L. G., Kakimi, K., Tsuji, M., Chisari, F. V. (2000). Host-Virus Interactions during Malaria Infection in Hepatitis B Virus Transgenic Mice. Journal Experimental Medicine, 192: 529–536.
  6. Fairley, T. L., Kilpatrick, C. W., Conn, J. E. (2012). Intragenomic Heterogeneity of Internal Transcribed Spacer Rdna in Neotropical Malaria Vector Anopheles aquasalis (Diptera: Culicidae). Journal Medicine Entomology, 42: 795-800.
  7. Raphael, R. D., Strayer, S. Philadelphia [u.a.]: Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 2008: 638pp. ISBN 9780781795166.
  8. Froebel, K., Howard, W., Schafer, J. R., Howie, F., Whitworth, J., Kaleebu, P., Brown, A.L., Riley, E. (2004). Activation by malaria antigens renders mononuclear cells susceptible to HIV infection and re-activates replication of endogenous HIV in cells from HIV-infected adults. Parasite Immunology, 26:213-217.
  9. World Health Organization, UNAIDS, (2007). "2007 AIDS epidemic update" (PDF). p. 1
  10. Garg, H., Mohl, J., Joshi, A. (2012). "HIV-1 Induced Bystander Apoptosis". Viruses, 4 (11): 3020–3043.
  11. Kumar, V. (2012). Robbins Basic Pathology (9th ed.). p. 147. ISBN 9781455737871.
  12. World Health Organization. (WHO) (2011). Roll Back Malaria Partnership: World Malaria Report (2011); World Health Organization; Geneva.?
  13. Hay, S. I., Guerra, C. A., Gething, P. W., Patil, A. P., Tatem, A. J., Noor, A. M., Kabaria, C. W., Manh, B. H., Elyazar, I. R., Brooker, S., Smith, D. L., Moyeed, R. A., Snow R. W. (2007). A World Malaria Map: Plasmodium falciparum Endemicity in . PLoS Medical, 6(3): 112-114.
  14. Denue, B. A., Gashau, W., Bello, H. S., Kida, I., Bakki, B., Ajayi, B. (2013). Relationship between some Hematological Abnormalities, Degree of Immunosuppresion and Viral Load in Treatment-naïve HIV Infected Patients Eastern Nigeria. East Mediterran Health Journal, 19(5): 362-368.
  15. Orlov, M., Vaida, F., Finney, O.C. et al. (2012). Plasmodium falciparum enhances HIV replication in an experimental malaria challenge system. PLOS One, 7: e3900.
  16. Sharif, A.A., Dabo, N.T., Getso, M.I., Yusuf, I., Muhd, I.Z., Ahmad, I.M. (2016). Liver Function of biomarkers in malaria and hepatitis B coinfection among patients with febrile illness in Kano metropolis. Int J Biol Med Res 7 (1); 5377-5380.
  17. Barcus, M.J., Hien, T.T/, Laras, K. et al. (2002). Short report: Hepatitis B infection and Severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Vietnamese adults. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 66(2): 140-142.
  18. Olatunji, M.K., Sylviane, N.K. (2017). Hepatitis B virus and malaria coinfection causing significant changes in hematological and liver function indices in a cohort of subjects in Ilorin, Nigeria. International Journal of Infection, 5 (3): e81528.