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Melatonin, A Promising Therapeutic for Diabetes Mellitus and Its Complications: A Narrative Review

1Faculty of Medicine, University of Muhammadiyah, Indonesia

2Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, State University of Semarang, Indonesia

Received: 28 Oct 2021; Revised: 10 Nov 2021; Accepted: 29 Dec 2021; Available online: 31 Dec 2021; Published: 31 Dec 2021.
Open Access Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Biomedicine and Translational Research
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

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Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a non-communicable disease and still a health problem in the world. Melatonin is responsible to metabolize carbohydrate and regulate blood sugar levels. Several studies proved Melatonin is useful in the diabetes therapy and its complication by performing antioxidant activity through various signaling pathways. The role of the melatonin hormone in the pathogenesis of complications of diabetes mellitus is still a lot of controversy. Animal studies are still incomplete to explain the mechanism of action of melatonin. Therefore, this review aims to discuss Melatonin role administration in DM and its complications. This review was started by searching articles using electronic databases such as Google Scholar, Science Direct, SpringerLink and Pubmed between 2009-2019. Melatonin increased respiration within mitochondria; acted as antioxidant that fight free radical production; and reduced oxidative stress. It diminished proinflammatory cytokines in diabetes and prevents various DM complications on eyes, cardiac and male reproductive organs through antioxidant effects. It inhibited proinflammatory within several signaling Pathways, included PI3K/Akt-Nrf2,cGMP-PKG, Nrf-2-HO-1 and MAPK, Syk, p38MAPK pathways. There are various melatonin roles in diabetes and DM complications as a promising new breakthrough of DM treatment. It is necessary to explore Melatonin role in other DM complications. Most of this research is on experimental animals, thus clinical trial studies should be carried out in humans to make melatonin a promising therapeutic or prevention for diabetes and its complications in the future

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Keywords: melatonin; diabetes mellitus; complication;signaling pathways
Funding: Directorate of Research and Community Services, Directorate General of Research and Development, Ministry of Research, Technology, and Higher Education, Republic of Indonesia, under the research scheme of Penelitian Kerjasama Antar Perguruan Tinggi, 2019.

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