Water Governance for Urban Resilience Analysis of Key Factors and the Role of Stakeholders in Metropolitan Area

DOI: https://doi.org/10.14710/ijpd.2.1.11-18

Article Metrics: (Click on the Metric tab below to see the detail)

Article Info
Submitted: 10-01-2017
Published: 27-02-2017
Section: Articles
Fulltext PDF Tell your colleagues Email the author

Water governance is critical for water security and as enabling condition to achieve urban resilience. Water governance involves multi-actor, multi-sector and multi-level. Water governance system is the foundation for all stakeholders involved in water management in urban areas. Clarity of roles and responsibilities of each actor and coordination at all levels can help to meet the goals of urban water security to be more efficient, effective and inclusive. This article highlights the current water governance in a metropolitan area with level analysis on policy, organizational and operational. This is a multidisciplinary perspective of environmental science and public policy. Bandung Metropolitan Area (BMA) is chosen as a case study. Data and information gathered from secondary sources. The output is an initial baseline of water governance in BMA including key factors shaping water governance and role of stakeholder. This result will be used for the further research on dynamic and adaptive governance on the urban water sector.


multi-level governance; urban resilience; water governance

  1. Wahyu Mulyana 
    Environmental Science Study Program Universitas Indonesia, Depok, Indonesia
  2. Emirhadi Suganda 
    Environmental Science Study Program Universitas Indonesia, Depok, Indonesia
  1. Ardiwidjaya, V. S., Soemardi, T. P., Suganda, E., & Temenggung, Y. A. (2014). Bandung urban sprawl and idle land: Spatial environmental perspectives. APCBEE Procedia, 10, 208-213. doi:10.1016/j.apcbee.2014.10.040.
  2. Asian Development Bank (ADB). (2013). Indonesia: Water supply and sanitation sector assessment, strategy, and roadmap. Retrieved from https://www.adb.org/sites/default/files/institutional-document/33808/files/indonesia-water-supply-sector-assessment.pdf.
  3. Australian Aid (AUSAID). (2014). New directions for Indonesia’s water and sanitation sector. Indonesia Infrastructure Initiative (INDII), Prakarsa, 16, 28 – 46.
  4. Environmental Management Agency of Bandung City. (2014). Climate risks and vulnerability of Bandung City. Unpublished presentation, Environmental Management Agency of Bandung City, Bandung.
  5. Central Bureau of Statistics West Java. (2015). West Java in figures 2015. Bandung: Government of Jawa Barat Province.
  6. Gupta, J., Pahl-Wostl, C., & Zondervan, R. (2013). ‘Glocal’ water governance: A multi-level challenge in the anthropocene. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability. 5(6), 573–580. doi:10.1016/j.cosust.2013.09.003.
  7. Indonesia National Board for Disaster Management. (2013). Indonesia Disaster Risk Index (Indeks Risiko Bencana Indonesia). Jakarta: The Government of Republic Indonesia.
  8. Maryati, S., & Humaira, A. S. (2015). Extending public water supply in peri-urban area: Technical- engineering, economic and environmental consideration. Procedia Engineering, 125, 243 - 249.
  9. Ministry of Public Works and Public Housing. (2014). Strategic Plan of the Directorate General of Human Settlement 2015-2019 (Rencana Strategis Ditjen Cipta Karya 2015-2019). Jakarta: The Government of Republic Indonesia.
  10. Moersidik, S. S., Arifin, R. S., Soesilo, E. T. B, Hartono, D. M., & Latief, Y. (2015). Project portfolio management to increase PDAM Tirtawening’s service coverage area. Water Resources Management VIII, 196(12), 65 - 76. doi:10.2495/WRM150061.
  11. Nababan, M. L. (2012). Governance of interlocal government for water supply system in Indonesia. (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from http://repository.kulib.kyoto-u.ac.jp/dspace/bitstream/2433/161000/2/D_Mangapul%20Lammiahan%20Nababan.pdf.
  12. OECD. (2016). Water governance in cities. Paris: OECD Publishing.
  13. President of Republic Indonesia. (1974). Law No. 17 Year 1974 on Irrigation (Undang-Undang Nomor 17 Tahun 1974 tentang Pengairan). Jakarta: The Government of Republic Indonesia.
  14. President of Republic Indonesia . (2004). Law No. 7 Year 2004 on Water Resource (Undang-Undang Nomor 7 Tahun 2004 tentang Sumber Daya Air). Jakarta: The Government of Republic Indonesia.
  15. President of Republic Indonesia. (2009). Law No. 32 Year 2009 on Environmental Protection and Management (Undang-Undang Nomor 32 Tahun 2009 tentang Perlindungan dan Pengelolaan Lingkungan Hidup). Jakarta: The Government of Republic Indonesia.
  16. President of Republic Indonesia. (2009). Law No. 36 Year 2009 on Health (Undang-Undang Nomor 36 Tahun 2009 tentang Kesehatan). Jakarta: The Government of Republic Indonesia.
  17. President of Republic Indonesia. (2014). Law No. 23 Year 2014 on Local Governance (Undang-Undang Nomor 23 Tahun 2014 tentang Pemerintah Daerah). Jakarta: The Government of Republic Indonesia.
  18. President of Republic Indonesia. (2014). Government Regulation (GR) No. 66 Year 2014 on Environmental Health (Peraturan Pemerintah Nomor 66 Tahun 2014 tentang Kesehatan Lingkungan. Jakarta: The Government of Republic Indonesia.
  19. President of Republic Indonesia. (2015). Government Regulation (GR) No. 121 Year 2015 on Water Resource Exploitation (Peraturan Pemerintah Nomor 121 Tahun 2015 tentang Pengusahaan Sumber Daya Air). Jakarta: The Government of Republic Indonesia.
  20. President of Republic Indonesia. (2015). Government Regulation (GR) No. 122 Year 2015 on Water Supply Provision System (Peraturan Pemerintah Nomor 122 Tahun 2015 tentang Sistem Penyediaan Air Minum). Jakarta: The Government of Republic Indonesia.
  21. Pribadi, K., Pertiwi, H. R., & Sjabri, I. (1998). Application of IT in Natural Disaster Risk Management: Case Study of Bandung Earthquake Mitigation Project. Bangkok: INCEDE Report 11.
  22. Prihandrijanti, M., & Firdayati, M. (2011). Current situation and considerations of domestic wastewater treatment systems for big cities in Indonesia (Case study: Surabaya and Bandung). Journal of Water sustainability,1(2), 249-256.
  23. Rogers, P., & Hall, A. W. (2003). Effective water governance (TEC Background Papers No. 7). Sweden: Global Water Partnership Technical Committee.
  24. Suroso, D. S. A., Abdurahman, O., & Setiawan, B. (2010, March). Impacts of climate change on the sustainability of water supply in Indonesia. Paper presented in the Second International Workshop on Water Supply Management System and Social Capital, Sepuluh Nopember Institute of Technology, Surabaya.
  25. Tarigan, A. K. M., Sagala, S., Samsura, D. A. A, Fiisabiilillah, D. F., Simarmata, H. A., & Nababan M. (2016). Bandung City Indonesia, Cities, 50, 100 – 110. doi:10.1016/j.cities.2015.09.005.
  26. van Leeuwen, C. J., Dan, N. P., & Dieperink, C. (2015). The challenges of water governance in Ho Chi Minh City. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management, 12(2), 345-352. doi:10.1002/ieam.1664.
  27. van Monfort, C., Michels, A., & Frankowski, A. (2014). Governance models and partnerships in the urban water sector: A framework for analysis and evaluation. Retrieved from Utrecht University Repository website: https://dspace.library.uu.nl/handle/1874/303566.
  28. World Bank. (2007). Spending for development: Making the most of Indonesia’s new opportunities (Indonesia Public Expenditure Review 2007). Retrieved from World Bank Document http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTINDONESIA/Resources/Publication/280016-1168483675167/PEReport.pdf.
  29. World Health Organization (WHO). (2012). UN-water global annual assessment of sanitation and drinking-water (GLAAS) 2012 report: The challenge of extending and sustaining services. Retrieved from http://www.un.org/waterforlifedecade/pdf/glaas_report_2012_eng.pdf.