Faktor-Faktor yang Mempengaruhi Kerawanan dan Ketahanan Pangan dan Implikasi Kebijakannya di Kabupaten Rembang

DOI: https://doi.org/10.14710/jwl.5.2.125-140

Article Metrics: (Click on the Metric tab below to see the detail)

Article Info
Submitted: 03-04-2017
Published: 29-08-2017
Section: Articles
Fulltext PDF Tell your colleagues Email the author

Food security issue remains a worldwide concern and discussed in the main point of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) documents. Several problems threatening food security in addition to socioeconomic issue and the decline of agricultural land are the decrease of agricultural production caused by climate change. The Indonesian Government has proposed Food Security and Vulnerability Atlas (FSVA) to find out areas which require prioritized handling on food insecurity in order to determine appropriate policy strategy. Even though the result of FSVA 2015 concluded food security status in Rembang District, it does not guarantee similar condition in the villages. To complement the result of FSVA, this research attempts to identify food security and food insecurity at the village level by using spatial analysis and statistical analysis with factor analysis in order to examine the cause of food security and food insecurity. The result showed that most villages in Rembang fell into sufficient food security status (105 villages) and food security status (90 villages), but there remained 10 villages left into an extremely food insecurity status which required more attention. The result of factor analysis showed the main factor causing food security was food availability and the main factor of food insecurity was socioeconomic factors. Food security strategies and policies were determined by indicators which constructed factor grouping that affected food security and food insecurity. This strategy was not only to solve food insecurity problems but also to increase food security in Rembang.

Keywords

food security, food insecurity; food security policy; regional development

  1. Nugroho Indira Hapsari 
    Dinas Pertanian dan Pangan Kabupaten Rembang, Indonesia
  2. Iwan Rudiarto 
    Program Studi Magister Pembangunan Wilayah dan Kota, Universitas Diponegoro, Semarang, Indonesia
  1. Adger, N. W. (2000). Social and ecological resilience: are they related? Progress in Human Geography, 3(3), 347–364. doi:10.1191/030913200701540465
  2. Berkes, F., Colding, J., & Folke, C. (2003). Navigating Social - Ecological Systems: Building Resilience for Complexity and Change, 1. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511541957
  3. Boratyńska, K., & Huseynov, R. T. (2016). An innovative approach to food security policy in developing countries. Journal of Innovation & Knowledge, 2, 6–11. doi:10.1016/j.jik.2016.01.007
  4. Carpenter, S., Walker, B., Anderies, J. M., & Abel, N. (2001). From metaphor to measurement: Resilience of what to what? Ecosystems, 4(8), 765–781. doi:10.1007/s10021-001-0045-9
  5. Conceição, P., Levine, S., Lipton, M., & Warren-Rodríguez, A. (2016). Toward a food secure future: Ensuring food security for sustainable human development in Sub-Saharan Africa. Food Policy, 60, 1–9. doi:10.1016/j.foodpol.2016.02.003
  6. Cranfield, J., Preckel, P. V, & Hertel, T. W. (2007). Poverty Analysis Using an International Cross-Country Demand System. Program. Washington. doi:10.1596/1813-9450-4285
  7. Davies, A. . (2009). Food security initiatives in Nigeria: Prospects and challenges. Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa, 11(1), 186–202. Retrieved from https://www.cabdirect.org/cabdirect/abstract/20103307624
  8. Destianto, R., & Pigawati, B. (2014). Analisis keterkaitan perubahan lahan pertanian terhadap ketahanan pangan Kabupaten Magelang berbasis model spatio temporal SIG. Geoplanning, 1(1), 21–32. doi:10.14710/geoplanning.1.1.21-32
  9. Dewan Ketahanan Pangan. (2009). Panduan Penyusunan Peta Ketahanan dan Kerawanan Pangan Indonesia (Food Security and Vulnerability Atlas/FSVA). Jakarta.
  10. Dewan Ketahanan Pangan. (2015). Peta Ketahanan dan Kerentanan Pangan Indonesia Tahun 2015. Retrieved from http://documents.wfp.org/stellent/groups/public/documents/ena/wfp276267.pdf
  11. Direktur Jendral Penataan Ruang Departemen Permukiman dan Prasarana Wilayah. (2004). Pengembangan Wilayah dan Penataan Ruang di Indonesia : Tinjauan Teoritis dan Praktis. Yogyakarta.
  12. Djurfeldt, A. A. (2015). Urbanization and linkages to smallholder farming in Sub-Saharan Africa: Implications for food security. Global Food Security, 4, 1–7. doi:10.1016/j.gfs.2014.08.002
  13. Edame, G. E., Ekpenyong, A. B., Fonta, W. M., & Ejc, D. (2011). Climate change, food security and agricultural productivity in Africa : Issues and policy directions . International Journal of Humanities and Social Sience, 1(21), 205–223. Retrieved from https://www.ijhssnet.com/journals/Vol_1...Issue.../21.pdf
  14. Ericksen, P. (2008). What is The vulnerability of a food system to global environmental change? Ecology and Society, 13(2), 7–14. Retrieved from https://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol13/iss2/art14/
  15. Flavio, L. S. V., Immink, M. D. C., & Coitinho, D. C. (2001). How political and social activism lead to a human rights approach to food and nutritional security in Brazil. Ecology of Food and Nutrition, 40(6), 619–633. doi:10.1080/03670244.2001.9991672
  16. Food Agricultural Organization. (2008). An Introduction to the Basic Concepts of Food Security. Rome. Retrieved from www.fao.org/docrep/013/al936e/al936e00.pdf
  17. Food Agricultural Organization. (2009). World Food Summit. Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/wsfs/world-summit/en/?no_cache=1
  18. Frozi, D. S., Sichieri, R., Maria, S., & Pereira, R. A. (2015). Characteristics of social vulnerability and food insecurity among urban families in extreme poverty in Brazil, 3(2), 62–68. doi:10.12691/jfs-3-2-4
  19. Gohar, A. A., & Cashman, A. (2016). A methodology to assess the impact of climate variability and change on water resources, food security and economic welfare. Agricultural Systems, 147, 51–64. doi:10.1016/j.agsy.2016.05.008
  20. Hall, A. (2011). Putting Agricultural Research into Use : Lessons from Contested Visions of Innovation. Maastricht.
  21. Hammer, G. L., Hansen, J. W., Phillips, J. G., Mjelde, J. W., Hill, H., Love, A., & Potgieter, A. (2001). Advances in application of climate prediction in agriculture. Agricultural Systems, 70(2–3), 515–553. doi:10.1016/S0308-521X(01)00058-0
  22. Hanani, N. H. A. (2000). Pengertian Ketahanan Pangan. Litbang Pertanian. Jakarta.
  23. Harvey, C. A., Rakotobe, Z. L., Rao, N. S., Dave, R., Razafimahatratra, H., Rabarijohn, H., … Rabarijohn, R. H. (2014). Extreme vulnerability of smallholder farmers to agricultural risks and climate change in Madagascar extreme vulnerability of smallholder farmers to agricultural risks and climate change in Madagascar Author for Correspondence : Phil. Trans. R. Soc., 369(1639), 1–12. doi:10.1098/rstb.2013.0089
  24. Hertel, T. W., Burke, M. B., & Lobell, D. B. (2010). The poverty implications of climate-induced crop yield changes by 2030. Global Environmental Change, 20(4), 577–585. doi:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2010.07.001
  25. Holling, C. S. (1973). Resilience and stability of ecological systems. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 4(1), 1–23. doi:10.1146/annurev.es.04.110173.000245
  26. Ingawa, S. A. (2002). Keynote address at the 8th Annual Conference of the Agricultural Extension Society of Nigeria held in Benin City, 16 – 19 September, In Olowu T. A. (ed). In Processings of the Agricultural Extension Society of Nigeria. Benin: Processings of the Agricultural Extension Society of Nigeria.
  27. Ivanic, M., & Martin, W. (2008). Implications of higher global food prices for poverty in low-income countries. Agricultural Economics, 39(SUPPL. 1), 405–416. doi:10.1111/j.1574-0862.2008.00347.x
  28. Karunasagar, I. (2016). Challenges of Food Security – Need for interdisciplinary collaboration. Procedia Food Science, 6(Icsusl 2015), 31–33. doi:10.1016/j.profoo.2016.02.005
  29. Knox, J., Hess, T., Daccache, A., & Wheeler, T. (2012). Climate change impacts on crop productivity in Africa and South Asia. Environmental Research Letters, 7(3), 34032. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/7/3/034032
  30. Laube, W., Schraven, B., & Awo, M. (2012). Smallholder adaptation to climate change: Dynamics and limits in Northern Ghana. Climatic Change, 111(3), 753–774. doi:10.1007/s10584-011-0199-1
  31. Maslow, A. H. (1954). The instinctoid nature of basic needs. Journal of Personality, 22(3), 326–347. doi:10.1111/j.1467-6494.1954.tb01136.x
  32. Mekonnen, D. A., & Gerber, N. (2016). Aspirations and income, food security and subjective well-being in rural Ethiopia. Food Secure Working Papers. doi:10.1007/s12571-017-0654-6
  33. Mellor, J. (1978). Food price policy and income distribution in low-income countries. Economic Development and Cultural Change. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/1153310
  34. Morton, J. F. (2007). The impact of climate change on smallholder and subsistence agriculture. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 104(50), 19680–5. doi:10.1073/pnas.0701855104
  35. Mun’im, A. (2012). Analisis Pengaruh Faktor ketersediaan, akses, dan penyerapan pangan terhadap ketahanan pangan di kabupaten surplus pangan : Pendekatan partial least square path modelling. Jurnal Agro Ekonomi, 30(1), 41–58. Retrieved from http://pse.litbang.deptan.go.id/ind/pdffiles/JAE30-1c.pdf
  36. Nakuja, T. (2012). Water storage for dry season vegetable farming as an adaptation to climate change in the upper east region of Ghana. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 7(2), 298–306. doi:10.5897/AJAR11.1601
  37. Nugroho, I., & Rokhmin, D. (2012). Pembangunan Wilayah (Perspektif Ekonomi, Sosial dan Lingkungan). Jakarta: LP3ES
  38. Paeth, H., & Hense, A. (2004). SST versus climate change signals in West African Rainfall: 20th-century variations and future projections. Climatic Change, 65(1–2), 179–208
  39. Rautner, M., Leggett, M., & Davis, F. (2013). Buku Kecil Pendorong Besar Deforestasi. Oxford: Global Canopy Programme
  40. Saputra, W., & Nurrizka, R. H. (2013). Pengaruh Faktor Demografi terhadap Risiko Gizi Buruk pada Tiga Komunitas Di Sumatera Barat. Prakarsa Research Paper. Jakarta Selatan
  41. Smeets Kristkova, Z., Van Dijk, M., & Van Meijl, H. (2016). Projections of long-term food security with R&D driven technical change - A CGE analysis. NJAS - Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences, 77, 39–51. doi:10.1016/j.njas.2016.03.001
  42. Spielman, D. J. (2005). Innovation Systems Perspectives on Developing-Country Agriculture: A Critical Review. Washington DC
  43. Stein, A. J. (2013). Resilience: Definition: 1996-present. In Building Resilience for Food and Nutrition Security. Wahington DC: International Food Policy Research Institute. doi:10.1177/030857599902300403
  44. Sunarti, E. (2006). Indikator Keluarga Sejahtera: Sejarah Pengembangan, Evaluasi, dan Keberlanjutannya. Institut Pertanian Bogor, Bogor
  45. Tendall, D. M., Joerin, J., Kopainsky, B., Edwards, P., Shreck, A., Le, Q. B., … Six, J. (2015). Food system resilience: Defining the concept. Global Food Security, 6, 17–23. doi:10.1016/j.gfs.2015.08.001
  46. Thornton, P. K., Jones, P. G., Alagarswamy, G., & Andresen, J. (2009). Spatial variation of crop yield response to climate change in East Africa. Global Environmental Change, v. 19(1), 54–65. doi:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2008.08.005
  47. United Nations Human Rights, & World Health Organization. (2008). Human Rights, Health and Poverty Reduction Strategies. Genewa
  48. Von Braun, J., & Braun, J. Von. (2008). High Food Prices : The What , Who , and How of Proposed Policy Actions with. Washington DC.
  49. Wisner, B., Blaikie, P., Terry, C., & Ian, D. (2003). At Risk: Natural Hazards, People’s Vulnerability, and Disasters. London, UK and New York, USA: Routledge. doi:10.4324/9780203428764
  50. Yeoh, W., Sin, J., Lê, Q., Terry, D. R., & Mcmanamey, R. (2014). Challenges of food security for migrants living in a Regional Area of Australia : Food availability , Accessibility and Affordability. Journal of Food Security, 2(3), 72–78. doi:10.12691/jfs-2-3-1