Urbanisasi, Konsumsi Energi, dan Emisi CO2 : Adakah Perbedaan Korelasinya di Kawasan Barat Indonesia (KBI) dan Kawasan Timur Indonesia (KTI)?

*Anastasia Widya Kristiani  -  Universitas Indonesia, Indonesia
Widyono Soetjipto scopus  -  Universitas Indonesia, Indonesia
Received: 9 Apr 2019; Published: 31 Dec 2019.
Open Access
Citation Format:
Article Info
Section: Articles
Language: ID
Statistics: 97

Abstract
Indonesia’s rapid urbanization has become one of the indicators of development that also continues to increase. It is undeniable, improving stage of development is often have an impact on environmental degradation such as excessive fossil energy consumption and CO2 emissions. However, not all regions in Indonesia are at the same stage of development. There are high economic and socio-demographic inequalities and differences between western Indonesia (KBI) and eastern Indonesia (KTI). This study aims to provide empirical evidence and analyze impact of urbanization on energy consumption and CO2 emissions in the country that has different stage of developments across the region. Taking regional heterogeneity in Indonesia, panel data estimation method was applied at the provincial level during the 2011-2015 period. The results of the study show that urbanization in KBI and KTI has different effects on per capita fossil energy consumption. Urbanization in KBI has a positive relationship to per capita energy consumption, whereas urbanization in the KTI has a negative correlation. Urbanization in KBI has a negative correlation with CO2 emissions. However, there was no difference effect of urbanization on CO2 emissions in both of region because the estimation results in KTI showed values that were not statistically significant. These findings not only help advance the existing literature, but also add insight to policy makers in the urban and regional planning.
Keywords
CO2 emissions; energy consumption; stage of development; urbanization

Article Metrics:

  1. Badan Pusat Statistik (BPS). (2013). Proyeksi Penduduk Indonesia 2010-2035. Badan Pusat Statistik, Jakarta.
  2. Badan Pusat Statistik (BPS). (2015). Statistik Lingkungan Hidup Indonesia. Badan Pusat Statistik, Jakarta.
  3. Badan Pusat Statistik (BPS). (2016). Statistik Lingkungan Hidup indonesia. Badan Pusat Statistik, Jakarta.
  4. Dietz, T., & Rosa, E. A. (1997). Effects of population and affluence on CO2 emissions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 94(1), 175–179. doi:10.1073/pnas.94.1.175.
  5. Gouldson, A., & Murphy, J. (1997). Ecological Modernisation : Restructuring Industrial Economies. The Political Quarterly, 68 (5), 74–86.
  6. Gu, C., Hu, L., Zhang, X., Wang, X., & Guo, J. (2011). Climate change and urbanization in the Yangtze River Delta q. Habitat International, 35(4), 544–552. doi:10.1016/j.habitatint.2011.03.002.
  7. IPCC. (2006). Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, 2(Energy).
  8. KLHK. (2015). Statistik Kementerian Lingkungan Hidup dan Kehutanan Tahun 2014.
  9. Kurniawan, R., & Managi, S. (2018). Coal consumption, urbanization, and trade openness linkage in Indonesia. Energy Policy, 121(February), 576–583. doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2018.07.023.
  10. Larivière, I., & Lafrance, G. (1999). Modelling the electricity consumption of cities: Effect of urban density. Energy Economics, 21(1), 53–66. doi:10.1016/S0140-9883(98)00007-3.
  11. Le, T. H., & Quah, E. (2018). Income level and the emissions, energy, and growth nexus: Evidence from Asia and the Pacific. International Economics, 156(November 2017), 193–205. doi:10.1016/j.inteco.2018.03.002.
  12. Li, K., & Lin, B. (2015). Impacts of urbanization and industrialization on energy consumption/CO2 emissions: Does the level of development matter? Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 52, 1107–1122. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2015.07.185.
  13. Lin, S., Zhao, D., & Marinova, D. (2009). Analysis of the environmental impact of China based on STIRPAT model. Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 29(6), 341–347. doi:10.1016/j.eiar.2009.01.009.
  14. Liu, Y., Gao, C., & Lu, Y. (2017). The impact of urbanization on GHG emissions in China: The role of population density. Journal of Cleaner Production, 157, 299–309. doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.04.138.
  15. Martínez-zarzoso, I., & Maruotti, A. (2011). The impact of urbanization on CO2 emissions : Evidence from developing countries ☆. Ecological Economics, 70(7), 1344–1353. doi:10.1016/j.ecolecon.2011.02.009.
  16. McGranahan, G., & Satterthwaite, D. (2002). The Environmental Dimensions of Sustainable Development for Cities. Geography, 87(3), 213–226.
  17. Pachauri, S., & Jiang, L. (2008). The household energy transition in India and China. Energy Policy, 36(11), 4022–4035. doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2008.06.016.
  18. Parikh, J., & Shukla, V. (1995). Urbanization, energy use and greenhouse effects in economic development. Global Environmental Change, 5(2), 87–103. doi:10.1016/0959-3780(95)00015-G.
  19. Poumanyvong, P., & Kaneko, S. (2010). Does urbanization lead to less energy use and lower CO2emissions? A cross-country analysis. Ecological Economics, 70(2), 434–444. doi:10.1016/j.ecolecon.2010.09.029.
  20. Prasetyawan, P. A., Hartono, D., & Awirya, A. Al. (2017). Pengaruh Urbanisasi terhadap Konsumsi energi dan emisi Co 2 : Analisis Provinsi di Indonesia Prima Agung PS*. Jurnal Ekonomi Kuantitatif Terapan, 10 No.2, 9–18.
  21. Sadorsky, P. (2013). Do urbanization and industrialization affect energy intensity in developing countries? Energy Economics, 37, 52–59. doi:10.1016/j.eneco.2013.01.009.
  22. Satterthwaite, D. (2009). The implications of population growth and urbanization for climate change. Environment and Urbanization, 21(2), 545–567. doi:10.1177/0956247809344361.
  23. Sheng, P., & Guo, X. (2018). Energy consumption associated with urbanization in China: Efficient- and inefficient-use. Energy, 165, 118–125. doi:10.1016/j.energy.2018.09.161.
  24. Xu, B., & Lin, B. (2015). How industrialization and urbanization process impacts on CO2emissions in China: Evidence from nonparametric additive regression models. Energy Economics, 48, 188–202. doi:10.1016/j.eneco.2015.01.005.
  25. York, R., Rosa, E. A., & Dietz, T. (2003). STIRPAT, IPAT and ImPACT: Analytic tools for unpacking the driving forces of environmental impacts. Ecological Economics, 46(3), 351–365. doi:10.1016/S0921-8009(03)00188-5.
  26. Zhang, C., & Lin, Y. (2012). Panel estimation for urbanization, energy consumption and CO2emissions: A regional analysis in China. Energy Policy, 49, 488–498. doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2012.06.048.