The Level of Climate Change Awareness among Citizens of Bitung City, Indonesia

*Syamsudin Nggole -  Badan Perencanaan dan Pembangunan Daerah Kota Bitung, Indonesia
Wido Prananing Tyas -  Departemen Perencanaan Wilayah dan Kota, Universitas Diponegoro, Indonesia
Wisnu Pradoto -  Departemen Perencanaan Wilayah dan Kota, Universitas Diponegoro, Indonesia
Received: 4 Sep 2018; Published: 30 Apr 2019.
Open Access
Citation Format:
Article Info
Section: Articles
Language: EN
Full Text:
Statistics: 175 24
Abstract

Knowledge about citizen’s climate change awareness level is needed to establish an appropriate policy to cope with climate change hazard, particularly in a highly vulnerable country like Indonesia. However, research regarding climate change awareness among citizens in Indonesian cities is limited. This research aims to investigate the level of climate change awareness among the citizens in Bitung City, a medium-sized city in the eastern part of Indonesia. The survey method is used in the research by analyzing questionnaires collected from the citizens. Three variables for measuring the awareness level include public concerns on climate variability, the causes of climate change, and the impacts of climate change. The findings show that the citizens of Bitung have a ”quite strong” awareness level. This contributes to the recognition of citizens’ characteristics toward climate change useful to climate change policy formulation in Indonesia, particularly the Bitung City Government. Some recommendations for the government include the incorporation of climate change issue to the citizens’ daily life and development programs by establishing a special task force of climate change at the city level.

Keywords
awareness level; Bitung City; citizens; climate change

Article Metrics:

  1. Biggam, J. (2015). Succeeding with Your Master’s Dissertation: A Step-by-Step Handbook (3rd ed.). New York: Open University Press.
  2. Bitung’s Maritime Station of Meteorological Climatology and Geophysiscs. (2017). Analisis Hujan Ektrem di Kota Bitung, Sulawesi Utara 12 Februari 2017 (Analysis of Extreme Rainfall in Bitung, North Sulawesi 12 February 2017). Bitung. Retrieved from http://www.bmkg.go.id/artikel/?id=f9rt4976402jq0h85908.
  3. Central Board of Statistics of Bitung City. (2015). Bitung City in Figures 2015. Bitung: Central Board of Statistics of Bitung City.
  4. Central Board of Statistics of Bitung City. (2016). Bitung City in Figures 2016. Bitung: Central Board of Statistics of Bitung City.
  5. Chrysolite, Hanny; Reidinar, Juliane; Josefhine, Chitra; Ge, M. (2017). Evaluasi Kemajuan Komitmen Iklim Indonesia (Indonesia’s Climate Commitment Progress Evaluation). Retrieved December 18, 2017, from http://www.wri-indonesia.org/id/blog/evaluasi-kemajuan-komitmen-iklim-indonesia.
  6. Dale, V. H., Joyce, L. A., McNulty, S., Neilson, R. P., Ayres, M. P., Flannigan, M. D., … Wotton, B. M. (2001). Climate change and forest disturbances: Climate change can affect forests by altering the frequency, intensity, duration, and timing of fire, drought, introduced species, insect and pathogen outbreaks, hurricanes, windstorms, ice storms, or landslides. BioScience, 51(9), 723–734. doi:10.1641/0006-3568(2001)051[0723:CCAFD]2.0.CO;2.
  7. Dhokhikah, Y., Trihadiningrum, Y., & Sunaryo, S. (2015). Community participation in household solid waste reduction in Surabaya, Indonesia. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 102, 153–162. doi:10.1016/j.resconrec.2015.06.013.
  8. Elrick-Barr, C. E., Smith, T. F., Preston, B. L., Thomsen, D. C., & Baum, S. (2016). How are coastal households responding to climate change? Environmental Science and Policy, 63, 177–186. doi:10.1016/j.envsci.2016.05.013.
  9. Food And Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. (2011). Food Wastage Footprint & Climate Change. Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/3/a-bb144e.pdf.
  10. Ghoneem, M. Y. M. (2016). Planning for Climate Change, Why does it Matter? (From Phenomenon to Integrative Action Plan). Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 216(October 2015), 675–688. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.12.060.
  11. Ghozali, A., Ariyaningsih, Sukmara, R. B., & Aulia, B. U. (2016). A Comparative Study of Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation on Flood Management between Ayutthaya City (Thailand) and Samarinda City (Indonesia). Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 227(November 2015), 424–429. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2016.06.096.
  12. Hayles, C. S., & Dean, M. (2015). Social housing tenants, Climate Change and sustainable living: A study of awareness, behaviours and willingness to adapt. Sustainable Cities and Society, 17, 35–45. doi:10.1016/j.scs.2015.03.007.
  13. Holdren, J. P. (2008). Meeting the Climate-Change Challenge. Retrieved from https://www.belfercenter.org/sites/default/files/legacy/files/2008_1-17_NCSE_final.pdf.
  14. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). (2007). Climate change 2007: Impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. Contribution of working group II to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. (M. L. Parry, O. F. Canziani, J. P. Palutikof, P. van der Linden, & C. E. Hanson, Eds.). Cambridge, UK.
  15. Labulu, H., Lisi, F., & Tuegeh, M. (2015). Analisa Sistem Tenaga Listrik Di Minahasa Dalam Menghindari Padam Total (Electrical System Analysis in Minahasa in Avoiding Total Off). Teknik Elektro dan Komputer, 26–32.
  16. Lee, T. M., Markowitz, E. M., Howe, P. D., Ko, C. Y., & Leiserowitz, A. A. (2015). Predictors of public climate change awareness and risk perception around the world. Nature Climate Change, 5(11), 1014–1020. doi:10.1038/nclimate2728.
  17. Lieske, D. J., Wade, T., & Roness, L. A. (2014). Climate change awareness and strategies for communicating the risk of coastal flooding: A Canadian Maritime case example. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 140, 83–94. doi:10.1016/j.ecss.2013.04.017.
  18. Local Disaster Management Board of Bitung City. (2017). Potential Disaster of Bitung City. Bitung.
  19. Madumere, N. (2016). Public enlightenment and participation – A major contribution in mitigating climate change. International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment, 6(1), 9–15. doi:10.1016/j.ijsbe.2016.10.003.
  20. Malee, Mario Rinaldi; S., Benu Olfie L.; Wangke, W. M. (2016). Persepsi masyarakat terhadap program pengelolaan sampah secara reduce, reuse, recylce (3R) di Kelurahan Manembo-nembo Tengah Kecamatan Matuari Kota Bitung. Agri-Sosial Ekonomi Unsrat, 12(2A), 225–238.
  21. Malik, N. K. A., Abdullah, S. H., & Manaf, L. A. (2015). Community Participation on Solid Waste Segregation Through Recycling Programmes in Putrajaya. Procedia Environmental Sciences, 30, 10–14. doi:10.1016/j.proenv.2015.10.002.
  22. Mananoma, Tiny; Tanudjadja, Lambertus; Mulya, H. (2010). Kajian Sistem Manajemen Air Bersih Kota Bitung (Assessment of Clean Water Management System of Bitung City). In PIT HATHI XXVII (pp. 1–11). Surabaya.
  23. Masud, M. M., Azam, M. N., Mohiuddin, M., Banna, H., Akhtar, R., Alam, A. S. A. F., & Begum, H. (2017). Adaptation barriers and strategies towards climate change: Challenges in the agricultural sector. Journal of Cleaner Production, 156, 698–706. doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.04.060.
  24. Ministry of Environment and Forestry. (2016). Climate Change Adaptation Policy and Programs in Indonesia. Retrieved from www.apeksi.id.
  25. Patchen, M. (2006). Public Attitudes and Behavior Change: What Shapes Them and How to Influence Them. Social Psychology. PCCRC Outreach Publication 0601. Retrieved from www.purdue.edu/climate.
  26. Public Works Agency of North Sulawesi. (2014). North Sulawesi Spatial Planning 2014-2034. Retrieved from www.http://bappeda.sulutprov.go.id
  27. Rao, V. S. (2011). Public awareness about global warming in Hyberabad, India. San Jose State University.
  28. Singh, A. S., Zwickle, A., Bruskotter, J. T., & Wilson, R. (2017). The perceived psychological distance of climate change impacts and its influence on support for adaptation policy. Environmental Science and Policy, 73(September 2016), 93–99. doi:10.1016/j.envsci.2017.04.011.
  29. Vij, S., Biesbroek, R., Groot, A., & Termeer, K. (2018). Changing climate policy paradigms in Bangladesh and Nepal. Environmental Science and Policy, 81(November 2017), 77–85. doi:10.1016/j.envsci.2017.12.010.
  30. Wijaya, A., Chrysolite, H., Ge, M., Wibowo, C. K., Pradana, A., Utami, A. F., & Austin, K. (2017). How Can Indonesia Achieve Its Climate Change Mitigation Goal? An Analysis of Potential Emissions Reductions From Energy and Land-use Policies. Working Paper. Jakarta, Indonesia: World Resources Institute., (September). doi:10.4155/cmt.13.77.
  31. World Bank. (2011). Vulnerability, risk reduction and adaptation to climate change: Indonesia. Climate Risk and Adaptation Country Profile, 7(1), 9–12. doi:10.1111/j.1740-9713.2010.00403.x.
  32. Zamasiya, B., Nyikahadzoi, K., & Mukamuri, B. B. (2017). Factors influencing smallholder farmers’ behavioural intention towards adaptation to climate change in transitional climatic zones: A case study of Hwedza District in Zimbabwe. Journal of Environmental Management, 198, 233–239. doi:10.1016/j.jenvman.2017.04.073.