Studi Pemanfaatan Biogas dari Limbah Rumah Potong Hewan untuk Mendukung Ketahanan Energi di Kota Bandung

*Anita Juraida -  Universitas Widyatama, Indonesia
Yudha Prambudia -  Universitas Widyatama, Indonesia
Ari Rahman -  Universitas Pertamina, Indonesia
Received: 28 Aug 2018; Published: 30 Apr 2019.
Open Access
Citation Format:
Article Info
Section: Articles
Language: ID

Supp. File(s):
Untitled
Subject
Type Research Instrument
  Download (22KB)    Indexing metadata
Statistics: 195
Abstract
Energy demand, particularly electricity for many activities, increases in line with the growth of urban population. Nowadays, most of energy supply in urban area is still dominated by the fossil fuel sources. As the use of fossil fuel increases, so does the greenhouse gas emission closely linked to global warming effects. Moreover, population growth also implies on waste production resulted from industrial and domestic activities. This paper applies waste to energy concept by estimating potential renewable energy from the slaughterhouse waste in Bandung City, Indonesia. This study is aimed to predict the potential contribution of waste from cattle, consisting of blood, rumen and feces from the slaughterhouses for biogas production. This research applies direct observation technique, interview and literature review methods. The location of this research was at the public and private slaughterhouses in Ciroyom, Cirangrang, and Regol of the Bandung City. The results showed that biogas could be produced by 139,977 m3/year equivalent to 658 MWh/year of electricity production. To support the city’s energy security, this potential energy source may contribute around 49.8% of the household electricity supply equivalent to 16.7% of the total electricity supply in Bandung City. This finding could be beneficial to the larger pilot study concerning the sustainable city program.

Note: This article has supplementary file(s).

Keywords
Bandung City; biogas; cattle; electricity; slaughterhouse wastes

Article Metrics:

  1. Abdeshahian, P., Lim, J. S., Ho, W. S., Hashim, H., & Chew Tin Lee. (2016). Potential of biogas production from farm animal waste in Malaysia. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 60, 714–723. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2016.01.117.
  2. Afazeli, H., Jafari, A., Rafiee, S., & Nosrati, M. (2014). An investigation of biogas production potential from livestock and slaughterhouse wastes. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 34, 380–386. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2014.03.016.
  3. Badan Pusat Statistik (BPS). (2017). Statistik Indonesia 2017. Jakarta: Badan Pusat Statistik Indonesia.
  4. Badan Pusat Statistik (BPS) Kota Bandung. (2013). Kota Bandung Dalam Angka 2012. Bandung, Indonesia.
  5. Badan Pusat Statistik (BPS) Kota Bandung. (2015). Kota Bandung Dalam Angka 2014. Bandung, Indonesia.
  6. Badan Pusat Statistik (BPS) Kota Bandung. (2016). Jumlah penduduk menurut kelompok umur dan jenis kelamin di Kota Bandung 2016. Retrieved from https://bandungkota.bps.go.id/statictable/2017/08/29/104/jumlah-penduduk-menurut-kelompok-umur-dan-jenis-kelamin-di-kota-bandung-2016-.html.
  7. Badan Pusat Statistik (BPS) Kota Bandung. (2016). Kota Bandung Dalam Angka 2015. Bandung, Indonesia.
  8. Badan Pusat Statistik (BPS) Kota Bandung. (2017). Kota Bandung Dalam Angka 2016. Bandung, Indonesia.
  9. Badan Pusat Statistik (BPS) Kota Bandung. (2018). Kota Bandung Dalam Angka 2017. Bandung, Indonesia.
  10. Badan Pusat Statistik (BPS) Kota Bandung. (2017). Luas wilayah menurut kecamatan di Kota Bandung 2017. Retrieved from https://bandungkota.bps.go.id/statictable/2018/07/11/154/luas-wilayah-menurut-kecamatan-di-kota-bandung-km2-2017.html.
  11. Basri, E. (2016). Potensi dan pemanfaatan rumen sapi sebagai bioaktivator. In Prosiding Seminar Nasional Agroinovasi Spesifik Lokasi Untuk Ketahanan Pangan Pada Era Masyarakat Ekonomi ASEAN (pp. 1053–1059).
  12. Darmawati, D., Mahadi, I., & Sukma, G. M. (2015). Pemanfaatan cairan isi rumen sapi dan sampah dalam memproduksi biogas sebagai pengembangan handout biologi. Jurnal Biogenesis, 12(1), 7–14. Retrieved from https://ejournal.unri.ac.id/index.php/JPSB/article/view/5107.
  13. Dehkordi, A. K. F., Shamsabadi, A. A., Pishkar, I., & Nafchi, S. P. M. (2015). Potential of biogas production from livestock manure in order to reduce the environmental pollution in Chamnar, Iran. Dama International, 4(3), 93–98. Retrieved from http://sciencejournal.in/data/documents/Trends-Life-Sci.-4-3-16.pdf.
  14. Dewan Energi Nasional. (2016). Indonesia energy outlook 2016. Jakarta: Kementerian Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral Republik Indonesia.
  15. Dharma, U. S., & Ridhuan, K. (2014). Kajian potensi sumber energi biogas dari kotoran ternak untuk bahan bakar alternatif di Kecamatan Kalirejo Kabupaten Lampung Tengah. Turbo, 3(2), 34–41.
  16. Elizabeth, R., & Rusdiana, S. (2011). Efektivitas pemanfaatan biogass sebagai sumber bahan bakar dalam mengatasi biaya ekonomi rumah tangga di Perdesaan.
  17. Fathurrohman, A., Hari, M. A., Zukhriyah, A., & Adam, M. A. (2015). Persepsi peternak sapi dalam pemanfaatan kotoran sapi menjadi biogas di Desa Sekarmojo Purwosari Pasuruan. Jurnal Ilmu-Ilmu Peternakan, 25(2), 36–42. doi:10.21776/ub.jiip.2015.025.02.05.
  18. Hanif, A. (2010). Studi pemanfaatan biogas sebagai pembangkit listrik 10kw kelompok tani mekarsari Desa Dander Bojonegoro menuju desa mandiri energi. Fakultas Teknologi Industri Institut Teknologi Sepuluh November.
  19. Herawati, T. (2012). Refleksi sosial dari mitigasi emisi gas rumah kaca pada sektor peternakan di Indonesia. Wartazoa, 22(1), 35–46. Retrieved from http://medpub.litbang.pertanian.go.id/index.php/wartazoa/article/download/973/982.
  20. Heryadi, A. Y., & Zali, M. (2017). Konsumsi daging sapi di Kabupaten Pamekasan. In Prosiding Seminar Nasional Peternakan 3 Tahun 2017 (pp. 275–282).
  21. Ho, C. S., Matsuoka, Y., Simson, J., & Gomi, K. (2013). Low carbon urban development strategy in Malaysia – The case of Iskandar Malaysia development corridor. Habitat International, 37, 43–51. doi:10.1016/j.habitatint.2011.12.018.
  22. Hozairi, H., Bakir, B., & Buhari, B. (2012). Pemanfaatan kotoran hewan menjadi energi biogas untuk mendukung pertumbuhan UMKM di Kabupaten Pamekasan. In Prosiding InSINas 2012 (pp. 93–98).
  23. Ihsan, A., Bahri, S., & Musafira, M. (2013). Produksi biogas menggunakan cairan isi rumen sapi dengan limbah cair tempe. Online Jurnal of Natural Science, 2(2), 27–35. Retrieved from http://jurnal.untad.ac.id/jurnal/index.php/ejurnalfmipa/article/view/1644.
  24. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). (2007). Climate change 2007: Impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. Contribution of working group II to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. (M. L. Parry, O. F. Canziani, J. P. Palutikof, P. van der Linden, & C. E. Hanson, Eds.). Cambridge, UK.
  25. International Energy Agency (IEA). (2012). Renewable energy. International Energy Agency.
  26. Lestari, C. M. S., Hudoyo, Y., & Dartosukarno, S. (2010). Proporsi karkas dan komponen-komponen nonkarkas sapi jawa di rumah potong hewan swasta Kecamatan Ketanggungan Kabupaten Brebes. In Seminar Nasional Teknologi Peternakan dan Veteriner 2010 (pp. 296–300). Bogor: Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Peternakan.
  27. Mahmud, M. (2015). Analisis tekno ekonomi perencanaan pembangkit listrik tenaga anaerobik biogas dengan pemanfaatan kotoran sapi di Desa Galang. Elkha Jurnal Teknik Elektro, 7(2), 1–7. Retrieved from http://jurnal.untan.ac.id/index.php/Elkha/article/view/12755.
  28. Martinez, J., Dabert, P., Barrington, S., & Burton, C. (2009). Livestock waste treatment systems for environmental quality, food safety, and sustainability. Bioresource Technology, 100(22), 5527–5536. doi:10.1016/j.biortech.2009.02.038.
  29. Omari, A. M., Kichonge, B. N., John, G. R., Njau, K. N., & Mtui, P. L. (2014). Potential of municipal solid waste as renewable energy source - A case study of Arusha, Tanzania. International Journal of Renewable Energy Technology Research, 3(6), 1–9.
  30. Opurum, C., Nweke, C., Nwanyanwu, C., & Orji, J. (2017). Biogas production from fish pond effluent supplemented with cow blood meal in a batch anaerobic digester system. Futo Journal Series, 3(1), 166–175.
  31. Owusu, P. A., & Banadda, N. (2017). Livestock waste-to-bioenergy generation potential in Uganda: A review. Journal of Environmental Research, Engineering and Management, 73(3), 45–53. doi:10.5755/j01.erem.73.3.14806.
  32. Pariatamby, A., & Fauziah, S. H. (2013). Sustainable 3R practice in the Asia and Pacific Regions: The challenges and issues. In A. Pariatamby & M. Tanaka (Eds.), Municipal Solid Waste Management in Asia and the Pacific Islands: Challenges and Strategic Solutions (pp. 15–40). Singapore: Springer. doi:10.1007/978-981-4451-73-4_2.
  33. Pemerintah Kota Bandung. (2012). Peraturan Daerah Kota Bandung Nomor 18 tahun 2012 tentang Energi dan Ketenagalistrikan. Bandung: Pemerintah Kota Bandung.
  34. PT PLN (Persero) Distribusi Jawa Barat Cabang Bandung. (2016). Jumlah pelanggan, daya tersambung dan energi terjual perusahaan listrik negara Di Kota Bandung, 2016. Retrieved from https://bandungkota.bps.go.id/statictable/2017/08/29/90/jumlah-pelanggan-daya-tersambung-dan-energi-terjual-perusahaan-listrik-negara-di-kota-bandung-2016.html.
  35. Rachmawati, S. (2000). Upaya pengelolaan lingkungan usaha peternakan ayam. Wartazoa, 9(2), 73–80.
  36. Ramachandra, T. ., Kamakshi, G., & Shruthi, B. . (2004). Bioresource status in Karnataka. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 8(1), 1–47. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2003.09.001.
  37. Rawung, F. C. (2015). Efektivitas ruang terbuka hijau (RTH) dalam mereduksi emisi gas rumah kaca (GRK) di Kawasan Perkotaan Boroko. Media Matrasain, 12(2), 17–32. Retrieved from https://ejournal.unsrat.ac.id/index.php/jmm/article/view/9204.
  38. Recebli, Z., Selimli, S., Ozkaymak, M., & Gonc, O. (2015). Biogas production from animal manure. Journal of Engineering Science and Technology, 10(6), 722–729. Retrieved from http://jestec.taylors.edu.my/Vol 10 issue 6 June 2015/Volume (10) Issue (6) 722-729.pdf.
  39. Saputri, Y. F., Yuwono, T., & Mahmudsyah, S. (2014). Pemanfaatan kotoran sapi untuk bahan bakar PLT biogas 800kw di Desa Babadan Kecamatan Ngajum Malang. Jurnal Teknik Pomits, 1(1), 1–6. Retrieved from http://digilib.its.ac.id/ITS-paper-22121140006421/33637.
  40. Sefeedpari, P., Rafiee, S., & Akram, A. (2012). Providing electricity requirements by biogas production and its environmental benefit in sample dairy farms of Iran. International Journal of Renewable Energy Research, 2(3), 384–387. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/263568227_Providing_Electricity_Requirements_by_Biogas_Production_and_Its_Environmental_Benefit_in_Sample_Dairy_Farms_of_Iran.
  41. Setiawan, A. I. (2008). Memanfaatkan kotoran ternak. Jakarta: Penerbit Penebar Swadaya.
  42. Tarigan, A. K. M., Sagala, S., Samsura, D. A. A., Fiisabiilillah, D. F., Simarmata, H. A., & Nababan, M. (2016). Bandung City, Indonesia. Cities, 50, 100–110. doi:10.1016/j.cities.2015.09.005.
  43. Usman, Y. (2013). Pemberian pakan serat sisa tanaman pertanian (jerami kacang tanah, jerami jagung, pucuk tebu) terhadap evolusi pH, N-NH3 dan VFA di dalam rumen sapi. Agripet, 3(2), 53–58. doi:10.17969/agripet.v13i2.821.
  44. Wahyuni, S. (2013). Panduan praktis biogas. Jakarta: Penerbit Penebar Swadaya.
  45. Wiyatna, M. F. (2007). Perbandingan indek perdagingan sapi-sapi Indonesia (Sapi Bali, Madura, PO) dengan sapi Australian Commercial Cross (ACC). Jurnal Ilmu Ternak, 7(1), 22–25. doi:10.24198/jit.v7i1.2227.
  46. Worldmeters. (2018). Top 20 largest countries by population. Retrieved from http://www.worldometers.info/world-population/
  47. Yazid, M., & Bastianudin, A. (2011). Seleksi mikroba metanogenik menggunakan irradiasi gamma untuk peningkatan efisiensi proses digesti anaerob pembentukan biogas. Jurnal Iptek Nuklir Ganendra, 14(1), 47–55. Retrieved from http://jurnal.batan.go.id/index.php/ganendra/article/view/31.
  48. Yuliana, D. K. (2017). Tingkat emisi gas rumah kaca di Kabupaten Indramayu. Jurnal Sains Dan Teknologi Mitigasi Bencana, 12(2), 1–10. Retrieved from http://ejurnal.bppt.go.id/index.php/JSTMB/article/view/2098.