skip to main content

Examining the Smoking Levels of Junior High School Students in Semarang City, Indonesia

1Health Promotion and Behavioural Science, Faculty of Public Health, Diponegoro University, Indonesia

2Health Policy and Administration, Faculty of Public Health, Diponegoro University, Indonesia

Received: 6 Mar 2020; Published: 15 Apr 2020.
Open Access Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Public Health for Tropical and Coastal Region

Citation Format:

Background: The prevalence of active smokers in Indonesia remains high. Global Adults Tobacco Survey (GATS) on 2011 stated that Indonesia has the highest number of active smokers (67% male and 2.7% female). National Health Indicator Survey 2016 showed the number of male adolescent who smoke was 54.8%. The aim of this study was to examine the smoking levels of junior high school students in Semarang City in order to arrange improvement in behavioral changes through identifying the patterns of adolescent’s smoking behavior.

Methods: This study used cross sectional study design. Samples were selected with simple random sampling technique, and 160 smokers who were junior high school students were obtained from 16 sub-districts in Semarang City. Data was analyzed using univariate and bivariate analysis.

Results: The result showed that the majority of the respondents were light smokers (90.0%) who smoke <5 cigarettes/day. The chi square test showed that pocket money to buy cigarettes (p=0.011) and the social interaction pattern (p=0.026) have correlation to students’ smoking levels.

Conclusion: Most students start to smoke at the age of less than 12 years old with light smoking degree. It is correlated with the pocket money to buy cigarettes and the social interaction pattern.
Fulltext View|Download
Keywords: Cigarette;Smoking Behavior;Student;Junior High School

Article Metrics:

  1. WHO. Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) : Indonesia Report 2011.; 2011.
  2. Central Bureau of Statistics I. Indonesian Population Census, 1990.; 2010
  3. TCSC - IAKMI. Bunga Rampai - Fakta Tembakau Dan Permasalahannya, Edisi V, Tahun 2014.; 2014.
  4. Riskesdas. Report of National Basic Health Research 2013. Jakarta; 2013
  5. Riskesdas. Report of National Basic Health Research 2008. Jakarta; 2008
  6. Riskesdas. Report of National Basic Health Research 2010. Jakarta; 2010
  7. Sirkesnas. Report of National Health Indicator Survey 2016. Jakarta; 2016
  8. Green L. Health Education Planning : A Diagnostic Approach. London: Mayfield Publishing Company; 1980
  9. Hedman L, Bjerg A, Perzanowski M, Sundberg S, Ronmark E. Factors related to tobacco use among teenagers. Respir Med. 2007;101(3):496-502. doi: 10.1016/j.rmed.2006.07.001
  10. Urrutia-Pereira M, Oliano VJ, Aranda CS, Mallol J, Sole D. Prevalence and factors associated with smoking among adolescents. J Pediatr (Rio J). 2017;93(3):230-237. doi: 10.1016/j.jped.2016.07.003
  11. Komasari D, Helmi AF. Factors Causing Smoking Behavior in Adolescent (Faktor- Faktor Penyebab Perilaku Merokok Pada Remaja). J Psikol Univ Gadjah Mada. 2000;3(1):37-47
  12. Simarmata S. Smoking Behavior among Students of Madrasah Tsanawiyah Negeri Model Kuok Sub-District of West Bangkinang, Kapar District, Riau Province (Perilaku Merokok Pada Siswa- Siswa Madrasah Tsanawiyah Negeri Model Kuok Kecamatan Bangkinang Barat Kabupaten Kampar P. 2012
  13. Rahayuningsih F. The Relationship between the Perception of Smoking Behavior with Smoking Behavior among Students at SMK X in Semarang City (Hubungan antara Persepsi Perilaku Merokok dengan Perilaku Merokok Siswa SMK X di Kota Semarang). J Kesehat Masy. 2015;3(2)
  14. Purba YC. The Relationship between Charactersitics, Knowledge, and Male Adolescent Attitude toward Smoking Habit in Parulian 1 Senior High School, Medan (Hubungan Karakteristik, Pengetahuan, dan Sikap Remaja Laki- Laki terhadap Kebiasaan Merokok di SMU Parulian 1 M. 2009
  15. Yulviana R. Factors Related to Smoking Habit among Male Adolescent at 10th and 11th Grade in SMAN 6, Pekanbaru (Faktor- Faktor yang Berhubungan dengan Kebiasaan Merokok Pada Remaja Putra Kelas X dan XI di SMA Negeri 6 Pekanbaru). J Kesehat Komunitas. 2015;2(6)
  16. Widianti E V., Wahyono TYM. Factors Related to Smoking Behavior among Students in “X” Junior High School in Bogor (Faktor- Faktor yang Berhubungan dengan Perilaku Merokok Siswa SMP Negeri “X” Di Kota Bogor Tahun 2014). 2014
  17. Binita AM, Istiarti VGT, Widagdo L. Hubungan Persepsi Merokok dengan Tipe Perilaku Merokok pada Siswa SMK “X” di Kota Semarang. J Kesehat Masy. 2016;4(5):268-276.
  18. Pradana HT. The Relationship between Knowledge, Attitude, and Adolescent’s Behavior Related to Smoking in the Department of Nursing Semester 4th and 6th University of Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta (Hubungan Antara Pengetahuan, Sikap dan Perilaku Remaja tentang Merokok di P. 2014
  19. Baharuddin. Factors Related to Smoking Behavior among Children at the Age of Middle Youth (15-18 Years Old) (Faktor- Faktor yang Berhubungan dengan Perilaku Merokok Pada Anak Usia Remaja Madya (15-18 Tahun)). 2017
  20. David O, Andrade D. Magnitude and socio-economic effects of tobacco use among youths in resource limited settings. Tob Prev Cessat. 2019;5 ( Supple(A115):56.,105231,0,2.html
  21. Chalela P, Velez LF, Ramirez AG. Social influences, and attitudes and beliefs associated with smoking among border Latino youth. J Sch Health. 2007;77(4):187-195. doi: 10.1111/j.1746-1561.2007.00190.x
  22. Liao Y, Huang Z, Huh J, Pentz MA, Chou C-P. Changes in friends’ and parental influences on cigarette smoking from early through late adolescence. J Adolesc Health. 2013;53(1):132-138. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2013.01.020
  23. Alamsyah RM. Factors Influencing Smoking Behavior and the Relationship with Adolescent Periodental Disease Status in Medan CIty (Faktor- Faktor yang Mempengaruhi Kebiasaan Merokok dan Hubungannya dengan Status Penyakit Periodental Remaja Kota Medan). 2009
  24. Liem A. Influences of Mass Media, Family, and Friends Towards Adolescents’ Smoking in Yogyakarta. Vol 18.; 2014. doi: 10.7454/mssh.v18i1.4

Last update:

No citation recorded.

Last update:

No citation recorded.