skip to main content

Youth Empowerment in the Integration Program of Stunting Prevalence Reduction in East Java during Covid-19 Pandemic: A Document Review

1Poltekkes Kemenkes Malang, Indonesia

2Indonesian Nursing Trainers, Malang, Indonesia

3Mubarak Al Kabeer Hospital, Kuwait, Kuwait

Received: 28 Feb 2022; Published: 30 Apr 2022.
Open Access Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Public Health for Tropical and Coastal Region

Citation Format:

Introduction: More than 25% of East Java regencies and cities had stunting prevalence rates higher than the national figure. The involvement of the youths to reduce stunting is important in helping to overcome this national health problem. This study aimed to identify areas in East Java that have stunting prevalence rates above the national rate and assisted in the preparation of a program called the Youth Empowerment for Stunting Reduction Program (YESREP).

Methods: This descriptive study used document review by PRISMA stages. At the initial stage, 453 documents were filtered from Google Scholar (n=29), Pubmed (n=12), SagePub (n=20), Semantic Scholar (n=6), others (n =136), while the remaining (n=260) were discarded. The search keywords were ’youth empowerment’, ‘stunting’, and ‘Covid-19’. The inclusion criteria were stunting cases, youth empowerment, and the Covid-19 pandemic. The documents screened were journals with quantitative, qualitative, document review methods, year of publication:2017-2022, focusing on youth empowerment and stunting, and in English or Indonesian languages. The tool used for the final document selection used PICOT model.

Results: Youth empowerment was one of the effective methods in reducing the stunting prevalence. However, training programs, orientation, continuity, guidance, and follow-up are needed. The challenges were in funds, time, and readiness of the human resources involved in the implementation of YESREP.

Conclusion: YESREP as a concept, was effective in reducing stunting prevalence, but still have some limitations. This study recommends conducting experimental research through a pilot project,

Fulltext View|Download
Keywords: youth empowerment; stunting prevalence; reduction; covid-19; East Java

Article Metrics:

  1. BKKBN Jawa Timur. Reflection Program of Bangga Kencana and Program Priority of 2022. 2022, 1-55. Available at, Accessed 2 Feb 2022
  2. Badan Pusat Statistik. Economy Development in East Java. Economy Development of Surabaya City. 2018;(16):1–9. Available at,pengeluaran%20terutama%20didorong%20oleh%20Pengeluaran. Accessed 2 Feb 2022
  3. Azupogo F, Abizari AR, Aurino E, Gelli A, Osendarp SJM, Bras H, et al. Malnutrition, hypertension risk, and correlates: An analysis of the 2014 ghana demographic and health survey data for 15–19 years adolescent boys and girls. Nutrients. 2020;12(9):1–23
  4. doi: 10.3390/nu12092737
  5. Akseer N, Vaivada T, Rothschild O, Ho K, Bhutta ZA. Understanding multifactorial drivers of child stunting reduction in exemplar countries: A mixed-methods approach. Am J Clin Nutr. 2020;112:792S-805S. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/nqaa152
  6. Hidayat BA, Erlyn P. Strategy Handling Stunting and Poverty in Palembang City, Indonesia. Randwick Int Soc Sci J. 2021;2(2):86–99. doi: 10.47175/rissj.v2i2.218
  7. BPS. Statistical Yearbook of Indonesia 2020. Statistical Yearbook of Indonesia. 2020. 192 p. Available at Accessed 2 Feb 2022
  8. BPS. Statistics of Indonesia. 2020. Population and Employment, 81-139. Available at:, Accessed 2 Feb 2022
  9. National G, Pillars H. East Java Province in Figures 2022. 1-609. Available at Accessed 2 Feb 2022
  10. Pedro Dos Reis F, Amaro R, Martins Silva F, Vaz Pinto S, Barroca I, Sá T, et al. The impact of confinement on children and adolescents. Acta Med Port. 2021;34(4):245–6. doi: 10.20344/amp.15854
  11. Rushing SNC, Hildebrandt NL, Grimes CJ, Rowsell AJ, Christensen BC, Lambert WE. Healthy & Empowered Youth: A Positive Youth Development Program for Native Youth. Am J Prev Med. 2017;52(3):S263–7. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2016.10.024
  12. Fitriahadi E, Priskila Y, Suryaningsih EK, Satriyandari Y, Intarti WD. Social demographic analysis with the growth and development of children in the era of the covid-19 pandemic in indonesia. Open Access Maced J Med Sci. 2021;9:321–7. doi: 10.3889/oamjms.2021.7389
  13. BKKBN. Renstra BKKBN Tahun 2015-2019. 2016; Available at Accessed 1 Feb 2022
  14. Ministry of Health. Regulation of the Minister of Health of the Republic of Indonesia number 84 of 2020 concerning the implementation of vaccinations in the context of dealing with the pandemic. 2020 p. 4
  15. United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund. Indonesia COVID-19 Response Situation Report. 2021. April-June, 2021, 1-131. Available at,%20June%202021.pdf, Accessed 2 Feb 2022
  16. Mery L, Rahmah A, Sry A, Wulandari R. Regulation of The Provision of Covid-19 Vaccination in Indonesia as The Implementation of State Obligations in line with The Indonesian Constitution. 2021;27(4):451–5. doi: 10.47268/sasi.v27i4.686
  17. Karim SSA, Karim QA. Omicron SARS-CoV-2 variant: a new chapter in the COVID-19 pandemic. Lancet. 2021;6736(21):19–21. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(21)02758-6
  18. Sutio D. Analysis of Risk Factors of Stunting Among Children 0-59 Months in Developing Countries and Southeast Asia. J Dep Gizi Fak Kesehat Masarakat. 2017;28:247–56
  19. Kruse CS, Beane A. Health information technology continues to show positive effect on medical outcomes: Systematic review. J Med Internet Res. 2018;20(2):1–9. doi: 10.2196/jmir.8793
  20. Hernández-Martínez A, Rodríguez-Almagro J, Martínez-Arce A, Romero-Blanco C, García-Iglesias JJ, Gómez-Salgado J. Nursing students’ experience and training in healthcare aid during the COVID-19 pandemic in Spain. J Clin Nurs. 2021;(February):1–8. doi: 10.1111/jocn.15706
  21. Al-Ashwal FY, Kubas M, Zawiah M, Bitar AN, Saeed RM, Sulaiman SAS, et al. Healthcare workers’ knowledge, preparedness, counselling practices, and perceived barriers to confront COVID-19: A cross-sectional study from a war-torn country, Yemen. PLoS One. 2020;15:1–16. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0243962
  22. Prabasari MAD, Lubis DS, Sutiari NK. Community participation in the utilization of village fund for stunting prevention: Case study in two villages in Gianyar District. Public Heal Prev Med Arch. 2021;9(2):100. doi: 10.15562/phpma.v9i2.293
  23. Ramlah D, J AH. A Method of Stunting Reduction Intervention Based on Community and Local Culture. 2021;3(1):412–27
  24. Candarmaweni, Yayuk Sri Rahayu A. Collaborative governance to achieve SDGs social development: Preventing stunting lesson from Pandeglang. E3S Web Conf. 2020;211:1–9. doi: 10.1051/e3sconf/202021101014
  25. Purnama TB, Arrazy S, Wangge G. A multi-level qualitative analysis of sensitive-intervention stunting program: from regulation to action. Res Sq. 2021; doi: 10.21203/
  26. Linasari D. Risk Factors for the Prevalence of Stunting in Young Children and Its Prevention. Proc 12th Annu Sci Meet Med Fac Univ Jenderal Achmad Yani, Int Symp “Emergency Prep Disaster Response Dur COVID 19 Pandemic” (ASMC 2021). 2021;37(Asmc):172–6. doi: 10.2991/ahsr.k.210723.042
  27. Bach A, Gregor E, Sridhar S, Fekadu H, Fawzi W. Multisectoral Integration of Nutrition, Health, and Agriculture: Implementation Lessons From Ethiopia. Food Nutr Bull. 2020;41(2):275–92. doi: 10.1177/0379572119895097
  28. Úcar Martínez X, Jiménez-Morales M, Soler Masó P, Trilla Bernet J. Exploring the conceptualization and research of empowerment in the field of youth. Int J Adolesc Youth [Internet]. 2017;22(4):405–18. doi: 10.1080/02673843.2016.1209120
  29. Putri ET. Youth Empowerment Efforts in Maturing Marriage Age, Improving Reproductive Health, Prevention of Stunting and Early Marriage. J Dharma Bakti. 2021;4(2):202–8
  30. World Health Organization. WHO | Enhancing the Role of Community Health Nursing for Universal Health Coverage [Internet]. WHO. 2017. 1–32 p. Available from: Accessed 2 Feb 2022
  31. Laksono AD, Megatsari H. Determinants of Stunted Toddler in East Java: Analysis of the 2017 Nutrition Status Monitoring Data. Amerta Nutr. 2020;4(2):109–16. doi: 10.20473/amnt.v4i2.2020.109-115
  32. Mahendradhata Y, Trisnantoro L, Listyadewi S, Soewondo P, Marthias T, Harimurti P, et al. The Republic of Indonesia Health System Review. 2017;7:1 p
  33. Mostafa A, Kandil S, El-Sayed MH, Girgis S, Hafez H, Yosef M, et al. Universal COVID-19 screening of 4040 health care workers in a resource-limited setting: An Egyptian pilot model in a university with 12 public hospitals and medical centers. Int J Epidemiol. 2021;50(1):50–61. doi: 10.1093/ije/dyaa173
  34. Siahaan M., Impact of the Covid-19 Pandemic on the World of Education. J Kaji Ilm. 2020;1(1):73–80. doi: 10.31599/jki.v1i1.265
  35. Liu Y, Rodcumdee B, Jiang P, Sha LY. Nursing education in the United States, Thailand, and China: Literature review. J Nurs Educ Pract. 2015;5(7). doi: 10.5430/jnep.v5n7p100
  36. Direktorat BLLB. The Revitalization of Family Planning Conselor, LKIP Direktorat Bina Lini Lapangan tahun 2019, 1-119
  37. Rahmadhita K. Stunting Problems and Prevention. J Ilm Kesehat Sandi Husada. 2020;11(1):225–9. doi: 10.35816/jiskh.v11i1.253
  38. Nurfatimah N, Ramadhan K, Entoh C, Longgupa LW, Hafid F. Continuity of Midwifery Care Implementation to Reduce Stunting. Open Access Maced J Med Sci. 2021;9(E):1512–6. doi: 10.3889/oamjms.2021.7062
  39. Hall C, Syafiq A, Crookston B, Bennett C, Hasan MR, Linehan M, et al. Addressing Communications Campaign Development Challenges to Reduce Stunting in Indonesia. Health (Irvine Calif). 2018;10(12):1764–78. doi: 10.4236/health.2018.1012133
  40. Halimatunnisa M, Indarwati R, Ubudiyah M, Trihartuty, Martha Sari NKP, Suhardin S. Family Determinants of Stunting in Indonesia: A Systematic Review. Int J Psychosoc. 2020;24(09):815–22. doi: 10.37200/IJPR/V24I9/PR290099

Last update:

No citation recorded.

Last update:

No citation recorded.