skip to main content

Difference of Schirmer Test Results Before and After Using Smartphones with Various Screen Brightness Levels

Dodik Dumadi  -  Faculty of Medicine, Diponegoro University, Indonesia
Maharani Maharani  -  Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Diponegoro University, Semarang, Indonesia, Indonesia
Tanti Ajoe Kesoema  -  Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Medicine, Diponegoro University, Semarang, Indonesia, Indonesia
*Riski Prihatningtias  -  Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Medicine, Diponegoro University, Semarang, Indonesia, Indonesia
Open Access Copyright (c) 2021 Diponegoro International Medical Journal
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Citation Format:

Background : The use of smartphones and other digital devices such as laptops and tablets is familiar in Indonesian society. Excessive uses of the devices are associated with dry eye syndrome and tear film dysfunction. The intensity of blue light when penetrating the eye is believed to affect tear film stability. Thus it will encourage tear evaporation which proved by Schirmer test.

Objective : To find out the difference of Schirmer test results before and after using a smartphone with  various screen brightness levels.

Methods : This study used pretest-posttest quasi-experimental study. The research subjects were students of the Faculty of Medicine, Diponegoro University (n = 30) who were selected by purposive sampling. In this study, the research subjects used smartphones for an hour with a predetermined screen brightness level, with the same room lighting. Before and after treatment the subject was measured the quantity of tears using the Schirmer test. Data were analyzed using the Wilcoxon test, Mann Whitney U test, and Kruskal Wallis test.

Results : The average pretest result on low brightness was 25,60 ± 9,44 and the post-test result was 17,60 ± 8,45. The pre-test result on medium brightness was 27,90 ± 9,46 and the post-test result was 24,80 ± 10,46. The pre-test result on high brightness was 23,60 ± 6,80 and the post-test result was 19,10 ± 7,95. The Schirmer test results before and after using smartphones with low brightness showed a significant different (P<0.05) and there was no significant difference for the pre-post test using smartphones with medium and high brightness. Comparison of Schirmer test results on low, medium and high screen brightness did not show a significant difference.

Conclusion : There is no significant difference between the Schirmer test results among low, medium and high screen brightness after one hour of smartphone usage.

Fulltext View|Download
Keywords: Blue light; Dry eye; Schirmer test; Screen Brightness Smartphone
Funding: No specific funding was provided for this article

Article Metrics:

  1. Antona B, Barrio AR, Gascó A, Pinar A, González-Pérez M, Puell MC. Symptoms associated with reading from a smartphone in conditions of light and dark. Appl Ergon [Internet]. 2018;68(May 2017):12-7.
  2. Dhamayanti M, Gradia DR, Rubiah A. Influence of Adolescents ' Smartphone Addiction on Mental and Emotional Development in West Java , Indonesia Pengaruh Kecanduan Gawai pada Perkembangan Mental dan Emosional Remaja di Jawa Barat , Indonesia. 2019;51(38).
  3. Busharha AA. Changes in blink rate and ocular symptoms during different reading tasks. Clin Optom. 2017;9:133-8.
  4. Moon JH, Kim KW, Moon NJ. Smartphone use is a risk factor for pediatric dry eye disease according to region and age: A case control study Pediatrics and Strabismus. BMC Ophthalmol [Internet]. 2016;16(1):1-7.
  5. Jaiswal S, Asper L, Long J, Lee A, Harrison K, Golebiowski B. Ocular and visual discomfort associated with smartphones, tablets and computers: what we do and do not know. Clin Exp Optom. 2019;102(5):463-77.
  6. Kaido M, Toda I, Oobayashi T, Kawashima M. Reducing Short-Wavelength Blue Light in Dry Eye Patients with Unstable Tear Film Improves Performance on Tests of Visual Acuity. 2016;1-10.
  7. Glimne S, Österman C. Eye symptoms and reading abilities of computer users subjected to visually impaired direct glare. Int J Ind Ergon [Internet]. 2019;72(April):173-9.
  8. Hagan JBO, Khazova M, Price LLA. Low-energy light bulbs , computers , tablets and the blue light hazard. Nat Publ Gr [Internet]. 2016;(November 2015):1-4.
  9. Zhao ZC, Zhou Y, Tan G, Li J. Research progress about the effect and prevention of blue light on eyes. Int J Ophthalmol. 2018;11(12):1999-2003
  10. Akinbinu TR, Mashalla YJ. Journal of Physiology and Pathophysiology Full Length Research Paper Knowledge of computer vision syndrome among computer users. 2013;4(4):58-63.
  11. Golebiowski B, Long J, Harrison K et al. Smartphone use and effecton tear film, blinking and binocular vision. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2018; 59: 913
  12. Maducdoc MM, Haider A, Nalbandian A et al. Visual consequences of electronic reader use: pilot study. Int Ophtalmol 2017; 31: 388-393
  13. Azici A, Sari ES, Sahin G et al. Change in tear film characteristics in visual display terminal users. 2015; 25: 85-89
  14. Ouyang X, Yang J, Hong Z, Wu Y, Xie Y, Wang G. Mechanisms of blue light-induced eye hazard and protective measures: a review. Biomed Pharmacother .2020;130(June):11057.

Last update:

No citation recorded.

Last update:

No citation recorded.