*Takako Kohori  -  Chiba University, Japan
Akhmad Arifin Hadi  -  Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia
Katsunori Furuya  -  Chiba University, Japan
Received: 16 Sep 2018; Published: 28 May 2019.
Open Access
Citation Format:
This study focuses on alun-alun, the open spaces in Indonesia that have a long cultural history. Alun-alun mostly located in the center of cities; they influence the pattern of cities and become a mental map for inhabitants. In this study, we investigated the distribution of alun-alun throughout Java Island. The research consisted of three parts. First, we identified Alun-alun from the colonial era using the old maps from Leiden University There were 15 locations of alun-alun in 13 cities identified from the old maps with characteristics as follows; 1) rectangular land, 2) located adjacent to the city mosque, and 3) located adjacent to the Regent’s office or Palace. In the second part, from those definitions, we confirmed 90 locations of alun-alun in 87 cities that have existed from the colonial period to the present across Java Island. The third part, we clarified the current province of alun-alun from two perspectives: area and spatial composition. We found that the present alun-alun show regional tendencies. Alun-alun in cities of Banten and West Java province was mostly in a small-scale area without Ficus benjamina trees. These points overlap with features described in the colonial era. Alun-alun in cities of Central Java and Yogyakarta province was relatively in a large-scale area and characterized by Ficus benjaminaas the main tree. Alun-alun in cities of East Java province was also in a large-scale area, but space mostly divided by planted areas, open area, structures, and others.
Keywords: Alun-alun; maps; space composition; urban open space

Article Metrics:

  1. Ahmad, Y. (2006). The Scope and Definitions of Heritage : From Tangible to Intangible. International Journal of Heritage Studies, 12(April 2013), 37–41.
  2. Cohen, N. (1999). Urban Conservation. In The MIT Press, Cambridge.
  3. Graham, B. (2002). Heritage as Knowledge: Capital or Culture? Urban Studies, 39, 5–6.
  4. Hadi Susilo Arifin (2013). Alun-alun dan Taman Kota. Radar Cirebon Group, Rabu Wage10 April 2013
  5. Handinoto. (1992). ALUN-ALUN SEBAGAI IDENTITAS KOTA JAWA, DULU DAN SEKARANG. Dimensi Teknik Arsitektur, 18(1), 1–15.
  6. Heryanto, B. (2000). Urban Form of Indonesia Cities During the Colonization Period. Sci&tech, 2(1), p.11-20.
  7. Ikaputra, & Narumi, K. (1994). A study on the Transformation of Symbolic Square in Javanese Historical Cities. Papers of the annual conference of the City Planning Institute of Japan, 29, 337-342
  8. Kohori, T., & Furuya, K. (2015). Study on the influences to student’s recognition and activity by the change of alun-alun. Japanese Institute of Landscape Architecture, 8(5), 573–578.
  9. Kohori, T., & Furuya, K. (2017). The characteristics of Indonesian open space image based on the space configuration. Japanese Institute of Landscape Architecture, 80(5), 579–584.
  10. Kotler, P., & Gertner, D. (2002). Country as brand , product , and beyond : A place marketing and brand management ...
  11. Lukito, Y. N., & Rizky, A. N. (2017). Enganging the past of the city through the conservation of heritage building Enganging the past of the city through the conservation of heritage building. Earth and Environmental Science, 99, 0–8.
  12. Rukayah, R. S. (2012). Bazaar in Urban Open Space as Contain and Container Case study: Alun-alun Lama and Simpang Lima Semarang, Central Java, Indonesia. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 50, 741–755.
  13. Rully Damayanti, & Handinoto. (2005). Kawasan “pusat kota” dalam perkembangan sejarah perkotaan di jawa. Dimensi Teknik Arsitektur, 33(1), 34–42.
  14. Winansih, E. (2010). Estetika simbolis – sensori pada ruang publik di alun- alun malang, (September), 20–28.
  15. Wiryomartono. (1995). Seni Bangunan dan Seni Bina Kota di Indonesia: Kajian mengenai Konsep, Struktur dan Elemen Fisik Kota Sejak Peradaban Hindu, Buddha, Islam Hingga Sekarang. Jakarta: Penerbit PT Gramedia Pustaka Utama