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Review Kebijakan Penggunaan Ruang Terbuka Hijau Perkotaan antara Jakarta dengan New York pada Pandemi COVID-19

*Retno Setiowati  -  Sekolah Ilmu Lingkungan, Universitas Indonesia, Depok, Indonesia
Raldi Hendro Koestoer  -  Kementerian Koordinator Bidang Perekonomian Republik Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia

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Abstract

Separuh penduduk tinggal di perkotaan dan menjadi penyebab permasalahan lingkungan. Salah satunya adalah alih fungsi lahan hijau menjadi lahan terbangun. Ruang terbuka hijau memiliki fungsi ekologis, ekonomis, dan sosial yang dapat meningkatkan kualitas kehidupan perkotaan. Tujuan penelitian adalah mengkaji kebijakan penggunaan ruang terbuka hijau perkotaan pada pandemi COVID-19 menggunakan metode studi komparasi. Lokasi studi dipilih di Jakarta, Indonesia dan New York, Amerika Serikat karena kedua kota tersebut memiliki jumlah penduduk yang padat dan menjadi pelopor pertama penyebaran COVID-19 di masing-masing Negara.  Responden di New York masih menggunakan ruang hijau perkotaan selama pandemi dan menganggapnya lebih penting untuk kesehatan mental dan fisik daripada sebelum pandemi dimulai. Terdapat kekhawatiran para pengunjung ruang hijau perkotaan di New York terkait jarak sosial, aksesibilitas, dan keamanan. Terjadi perubahan perilaku selama pandemi di Jakarta terhadap ruang hijau perkotaan seperti meningkatnya aktivitas pejalan kaki di sepanjang koridor hijau yang menjadi pendorong kebijakan publik dalam menanggapi perilaku dan kebutuhan baru yang muncul dari pandemi. Berdasarkan bukti empiris, perubahan perilaku di Indonesia diduga disebabkan oleh kebutuhan masyarakat untuk berekreasi dan relaksasi terhadap alam untuk mengurangi dampak psikologis yang disebabkan pembatasan sosial. Kebijakan pembukaan ruang terbuka hijau saat pandemi di Jakarta dapat dipertimbangkan dengan mengutamakan protokol kesehatan. 

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Keywords: Ruang Terbuka Hijau, COVID-19, Jakarta, New York

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