Relationship between Muhammadiyah and Politics in Parliament Democracy Period (A Case Study in Banyumas)

*Suwarno Suwarno  -  Universitas Muhammadiyah Purwokerto, Indonesia
Received: 1 Dec 2019; Revised: 6 Jun 2020; Accepted: 8 Jun 2020; Published: 11 Jun 2020; Available online: 11 Jun 2020.
Open Access
Citation Format:
Article Info
Section: Articles
Language: EN
Statistics: 40 29
Abstract

This study identifies steps taken by Muhammadiyah in the political arena during the Parliamentary Democracy period which was established through its proximity with Masyumi. Muhammadiyah was known as a special member of Masyumi at that time. This political phenomenon occurred both at national and local levels, in this case in Banyumas. The breakthrough was conducted by important figures such as K.H.A. Dardiri and S. Notosuwiryo. Muhammadiyah of Banyumas district had played an important role in establishing the Ministry of Religion of the Republic of Indonesia which was finally granted by the government. By Masyumi as its political articulation, Muhammadiyah figures in Banyumas had a lot to perform among political matters, mainly in Temporary Regional Houses Representatives of Banyumas (DPRDS) in 1950 which were quite dominant. The study used a historical approach to explore sources as evidence to strengthen the argument that Muhammadiyah and Masyumi in Banyumas had played an important role in social, economic, and community culture. It addresses the stigma that Muhammadiyah is very identical to Masyumi, if it is examined further then they have the same goal, namely a modernist movement. This step gives an affirmation that Muhammadiyah becomes a strong religious organization. Muhammadiyah embodies its goal by focusing on developing social, religious, and educational fields, while Masyumi's goal was purely in developing political parties. However, it is found that the number of human resources owned by Muhammadiyah is getting less. If the situation still occurs, then the majority of educational institutions experience teacher limitations.

Keywords: Muhammadiyah; Political Relationship; Masyumi; Parliamentary Democracy; Banyumas.

Article Metrics:

  1. Alfian. (1989). Muhammadiyah the political behavior of a muslim modernist organization under Dutch colonialism. Yogyakarta: Gadjah Mada University Press.
  2. Arifin, M. T. (1990). Muhammadiyah potret yang berubah. Surakarta: Gelanggang Pemikiran Filsafat, Sosial, Budaya, & Kependidikan.
  3. Boland, B. J. (1985). The Struggle of Islam in Modern Indonesia (S. Bahar, Trans.). Jakarta: Grafiti Press.
  4. Fealy, G. & Platzdasch, B. (2005). The Masyumi legacy: between Islamist Idealism and Political Exigency. Studia Islamika, 12 (1), 73-99. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15408/sdi.v12i1.646
  5. Feith, H. & Castles, L. (1988). Pemikiran politik Indonesia 1945 – 1965. Jakarta: LP3ES.
  6. Fuad, M. (2002). Civil society in Indonesia: the potential and limits of Muhammadiyah. Sojourn: Journal of Social Issues in Southeast Asia, 17 (2), 133-163.
  7. Jainuri, A. 1981. Muhammadiyah gerakan Reformasi Islam di Jawa pada awal abad keduapuluh. Surabaya: Bina Ilmu.
  8. Jung, E. (2014). Islamic organizations and electoral politics in Indonesia: the case of Muhammadiyah. South East Asia Research, 22 (1), 73-86. https://www.jstor.org/stable/23752501
  9. Khotimah, K. (2015). Peran tokoh agama dalam pengembangan sosial agama di Banyumas (studi historis sosiologis tokoh agama Islam abad 21). Purwokerto: Lembaga Penelitian dan Pengabdian Masyarakat IAIN Purwokerto.
  10. Maarif, A. (1998). Sekapur sirih. In Shihab, A. Membendung arus respons gerakan Muhammadiyah terhadap penetrasi missi Kristen di Indonesia. Bandung: Mizan.
  11. Maarif, A. S. (1987). Islam dan masalah kenegaraan studi tentang percaturan dalam konstituante. Jakarta: LP3ES.
  12. Noer, D. (1983). Administrasi Islam di Indonesia. Jakarta: Rajawali.
  13. Noer, D. (1990). Gerakan modern Islam di Indonesia 1900 – 1942. Jakarta: LP3ES.
  14. Padmo, S. (2007). “Gerakan pembaharuan Islam Indonesia dari masa ke masa: sebuah pengantar,” Jurnal Humaniora, 19 (2), 151 – 160.
  15. Shiddiqi, N. (1996). Jeram-jeram peradaban muslim. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar.
  16. Soebagijo I. N. (1982). K. H. Mas Mansur pembaharu Islam di Indonesia. Jakarta: Gunung Agung.
  17. Sulistiyanto, P. (2006). Muhammadiyah, local politics and local identity in Kotagede. Sojourn: Journal of Social Issues in Southeast Asia, 21(2), 254-270.
  18. Sumarno & Kosasih, A. D. (2014). Relasi agama dan negara dalam skala lokal, dinamika politik gerakan Muhammadiyah di Banyumas. Yogyakarta: UMP Press bekerja sama dengan Pustaka Pelajar.
  19. Surbakti, R. (1992). Memahami ilmu politik. Jakarta: Gramedia Widiasarana Indonesia.
  20. Suwarno, S. (2010). Relasi Muhamamdiyah, Islam dan Negara (kontribusi Muhammadiyah dalam perspektif sejarah).Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar.
  21. Suwarno, S. (2012). Sejarah politik Indonesia modern. Yogyakarta: Ombak.
  22. Syaifullah, S. (1997). Gerak politik Muhammadiyah dalam Masyumi. Jakarta: Pustaka Utama Grafiti.
  23. Tim Pembina Al-Islam dan Kemuhammadiyahan. Muhammadiyah sejarah pemikiran dan amal usaha. Malang: Pusat Dokumentasi dan Publikasi Universitas Muhammadiyah Malang.
  24. Yusuf, S. E., Sjam, M. I., & Mas’udi, M. F. (1983). Dinamika kaum santri menelusuri jejak dan pergolakan internal NU. Jakarta: Rajawali.