skip to main content

The Association between Serum Malondialdehyde and Nitric Oxide Level of Children Living In Area of Chronic Pesticide Exposure

*Astra Parahita  -  Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Diponegoro University, Semarang, Indonesia
Galuh Hardaningsih  -  Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Diponegoro University, Semarang, Indonesia
Anindita Soetadji  -  Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Diponegoro University, Semarang, Indonesia
Open Access Copyright (c) 2020 Diponegoro International Medical Journal

Citation Format:

Background: Chronic exposure of organophosphate pesticides is an oxidative stress that causes liver and aortic damage. Malondialdehyde (MDA) is a biological marker of oxidative damage to cell lipids membrane. The liver produces insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1) which stimulates the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) to produce vascular nitric oxide (NO). Children who are living in those area may be exposed to pesticide chronically. 

Objective: The study aims is to determine the relationship between serum MDA and NO level of children living in an area of chronic pesticide exposure.

Method: Cross sectional study was conducted to 50 children aged between 8 – 10 years in agriculture areas of Brebes. Serum MDA and NO level was measured at the same time using ELISA method, data were shown on numerical scale. Statistical analysisby Pearson correlation.

Result: Fifty children met the criteria, consisting of 30 males (60%) and 20 females (40%). The mean of serum MDA level in males, females, and total subjects were normal 6.03 (3.86) µg/ mL, 5.18 (2.11) µg/ mL, and 5.69 (2.60) µg/ mL, respectively. The mean of serum NO level in males, females, and total subjects were increased 79.42 (50.78) µmol/ L, 68.11 (50.81) µmol/ L, and 74.90 (50.58) µmol/ L, respectively. There was no association between serum MDA and NO level found.

Conclusion: Serum NO level of children living in an area of chronic pesticide exposure was higher than normal value. However, there was no association between serum MDA and NO level found.

Fulltext View|Download
Keywords: Malondialdehhyde; Nitric oxide; Oxidative stress; Pesticides
Funding: Faculty of Medicine, Diponegoro University

Article Metrics:

  1. Council on Environtmental Health. Pesticide exposure in children. Pediatrics. 2012; 130: e1757-63.
  2. Apriyanto C, Hermini S, Sulistiowati. Kebijakan pemerintah daerah kabupaten brebes dalam pemberdayaan petani bawang merah. 2013
  3. Litbang Depkes. Pencemaran bahan agrokimia perlu diwaspasai. 2010
  4. Suhartono. Pesticide exposure as risk factor thyroid dysfunction (Study on childbearing age woman in Brebes District). Dissertation. Diponegoro University. 2010
  5. Rasipin. Laporan Dinas Kesehatan Brebes. 2011
  6. Kinlay S, Creager MA, Fukumoto M, Hikita H, Fang JC, Selwyn AP, et al. Endothelium-derived nitric oxide regulates arterial elasticity in human arteries in vivo. Hypertension. 2001; 38: 1049-53.
  7. Yildrim E, Baydan E, Kanbur M, Kul O, Çinar M, Ekici H, Atmaca N. The effect of chlorpyrifos on isolated thoracic aorta in rats. Biomed Res Int. 2013; 1-7.
  8. Nascimento SN, Göethel G, Baierle M, Barth A, Brucker N, Charão MF, et al. Environmental exposure and effects on health of children from a tobacco-producing region. Environ Sci Pollut Res. 2016: 1-15
  9. Grandjean P, Harari R, Barr DB, Debes F. Pesticide exposure and stunting as independent predictors of neurobehavioral deficits in Ecuadorian school children. Pediatrics. 2006; 117 (3): e546-56.
  10. Noshy MM, Hussein AS, Shahy EM, El-Shorbagy HM, Taha MM, Abdel-Shafy EA. Assessment of anticholinesterase toxicity, oxidative stress and antioxidant status in carbamate and organophosphorus pesticides-exposed agricultural workers. International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research. 2017; 9 (3): 205-9.
  11. Arcury TA, Grzywacz JG, Barr DB, Tapia J, Chen H, Quandt SA. Pesticide urinary metabolite levels of children in eastern North Carolina farmworker households. Environmental Health Perspectives. 2007; 115 (7): 1255-60.
  12. Andersen HR, Grandjean P. Potential developmental neurotoxicity of pesticides used in Europe. Environmental Health. 2008; 7 (50): 50.
  13. Bernard Weiss B, Amler S, Amler RW. Pesticides. Pediatrics. 2004; 113 (4): 1030-6
  14. Eskenazi B, Marks AR, Bradman A, Harley K, Barr DB, Johnson C, et al. Organophosphate pesticide exposure and neurodevelopment in young Mexican-American children. Environ Health Perspect. 2007; 115: 792-8.
  15. Adgate JL, Barr DB, Clayton CA, Eberly LE, Freeman NC, Lioy PJ, et al. Measurement of children's exposure to pesticides: analysis of urinary metabolite levels in a probability-based sample. Environmental Health Perspectives. 2001; 109 (6): 583-9.
  16. Ramaekers V, Bosman B, Jansen G, Wanders R. Increased plasma malondialdehyde associated with cerebellar structural defects. Arch Dis Child. 1997; 77 (3): 231-4.
  17. Dragonjic LP, Jovanovic M, Vrbic M, Konstantinovic L, Kostic V, Dragonjic I. Antioxidant defense and oxidative stress in children with acute hepatitis A. Ann Saudi Med. 2011; 31 (3): 258-62.
  18. Kilic E, Yazar S, Saraymen R, Ozbilge H. Serum malondialdehyde level in patients infected with Ascaris lumbricoides. World J Gastroenterol. 2003; 9(10): 2332-4.
  19. Ghasemi A, Zahediasi S, Azizi F. Reference values for serum nitric oxide metabolites in pediatrics. Nitiric oxide. 2010; 23: 264-268.
  20. Kumar A, Mittal R, Khanna D. Free radical injury and blood-brain barrier permeability in hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Pediatrics. 2008; 122 (3).
  21. Naithani R, Chandra J, Verma P, Narayan S. Peroxidative stress and antioxidant enzymes in children with β-thalassemia major. Pediatric blood and cancer. 2006; 47 (7): 780-5.
  22. Namıduru ES, Tarakçıoğlu M, Namıduru M, Kocabaş R, Erbağcı B, Meram I. Increased serum nitric oxide and malondialdehyde levels in patients with acute intestinal amebiasis. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2011; 1 (6): 478-81.
  23. Radhakrishnan DK, Bendiak GN, Corral DM, Al-Saleh S, Bhattacharjee R, Allen MK, et al. Lower airway nitric oxide is increased in children with sickle cell disease. J Pediatr. 2012; 160: 93-7.
  24. Correia-Costa L, Sousa T, Morato M, Cosme D, Afonso J, Areias JC, et al. Oxidative stress and nitric oxide are increased in obese children and correlate with cardiometabolic risk and renal function. British Journal of Nutrition. 2016; 116: 805-15.
  25. Sweeten TL, Posey DJ, Shankar S, McDougle CJ. High nitric oxide production in autistic disorder: a possible role for interferon-γ. Biological Psychiatry. 2004; 55 (4): 434-37.
  26. Perampalli T, Swami SC, Kumbar KM, Suryakar AN, Shaikh AK. Possible role of oxidative stress in malnourished children. Curr Pediatr Res. 2010; 14 (1): 19-23
  27. Engelen MP, Com G, Luiking YC, Deutz NE. Stimulated nitric oxide production and arginine deficiency in children with cystic fibrosis with nutritional failure. J Pediatr. 2013; 163: 369-75.
  28. Franc PC, Alonso ST, Estal RM, Vericat JM. Nitric oxide production in increased in severely obese children relates to markers of oxidative stress and inflammation. J atherosclerosis. 2011; 215 (2): 475-80.

Last update:

No citation recorded.

Last update:

No citation recorded.