skip to main content

Translanguaging Practices in Tertiary Context EFL Classrooms in Indonesia

*Anggie Cahya Setya Ningrum  -  Department of English Literature, Brawijaya University, Indonesia
Sahiruddin Sahiruddin orcid scopus  -  Department of English Literature, Brawijaya University, Indonesia

Citation Format:

The phenomenon of code-switching, or translanguaging, has evolved within the field of linguistics, particularly in the context of bilingualism. Researchers have explored the use of the first language (L1) in second language (L2) classrooms from various perspective. This study explores students’ attitudes toward using L1 in EFL classrooms and its relationship with translanguaging characteristics, frequency, and factors including proficiency levels and gender. Based on Poplack’s (1980) theory, the study examines how highly language proficient bilinguals engage in translanguaging. This study involves 49 participants from an Indonesian EFL program using a survey-based research design. Data collection methods encompass Likert Scale surveys and open-ended questionnaires. The result reveals that students had positive attitudes toward translanguaging, considering it a natural practice for bilinguals that should be allowed in L2 classrooms. However, the study found that the students showing neutral perceptions that the practice of translanguaging did indicate the students’ lack of linguistics proficiency and gender. This led to the meaning that the statements were true without being influenced with the participants' subjectivity. This study also proves the hypothesis which stated that bilinguals who are highly proficient in both languages (L1 and L2) are generally better at translanguaging.

Keywords: EFL classroom; translanguaging; correlation; L1; L2.

Note: This article has supplementary file(s).

Fulltext View|Download |  Data Set
Questionnaire Responses
Type Data Set
  Download (29KB)    Indexing metadata
Keywords: EFL classroom; translanguaging; correlation; L1; L2

Article Metrics:

  1. Burat, G., & Çavuşoğlu, Ç. (2020). Teachers’ perceptions on using first language in Northern Cyprus efl classrooms. In Near East University Journal of Education Faculty. NEUJEF
  2. Cook, V. (2002). Portraits of the L2 user. In V. Cook (Ed.), Second Language Acquisition 1 (pp. 1–28)
  3. Creswell, J. W. (2021). A concise introduction to mixed methods research. SAGE publications
  4. Garcia, O., & Lin, A. M. Y. (2017). Encyclopedia of language and education series editor: Bilingual and multilingual education third edition.
  5. Hu, H. (2022). Factors pertinent to first language use in foreign language classroom: A case of content and language integrated learning. Arab World English Journal, 13(2), 177–191.
  6. Joyce, P., Von Dietze, H., & Mcmillan, B. (2021). Factors related to the desire for L1 support in the EFL classroom. 62
  7. Khalid Aldalbahy, K. (2022). The relationship between code-switching and the level of language proficiency in the second language of Saudi female students. Arab World English Journal, 13(4), 309–324.
  8. Leedy, P., & Ormrod, J. E. (2005). Practical research (Vol. 108). Saddle River
  9. Lewis, G., Jones, B., & Baker, C. (2012). Translanguaging: Origins and development from school to street and beyond. Educational Research and Evaluation, 18(7), 641–654.
  10. Moody, S., Chowdhury, M., & Eslami, Z. (2019). Graduate students’ perceptions of translanguaging. English Teaching & Learning, 43(1), 85–103.
  11. Nation, P. (2003). The role of the first language in foreign language learning
  12. Nilep, C. (2006). Colorado research in linguistics. 19.
  13. Patmasari, A., & Kamaruddin, A. (2022). An investigation of the use of code-switching in efl classroom: Attitudes and perceptions. ELS Journal on Interdisciplinary Studies in Humanities, 5, 2022.
  14. Poplack, S. (1980). Sometimes I start a sentence in English y termino en espanol
  15. Puspawati, I. (2018). Teachers’ use of code switching in efl classroom and its functions. Journal of Foreign Languange Teaching and Learning, 3(1).
  16. Rivera, A. J., & Mazak, C. M. (2017). Analyzing student perceptions on translanguaging: A case study of a Puerto Rican university classroom. HOW, 24(1), 122–138
  17. Sadiq, A. (2022). The function of code-switching in efl classroom at Tishk international university. International Journal of Social Sciences & Educational Studies, 9(2).
  18. Sahiruddin. (2023). exploring the need for a bilingual approach in english learning in an Indonesian efl tertiary setting. KnE Social Sciences.
  19. Sahiruddin, “Indhiarti,” “Tantri Refa,” & “Sudarwati,” “Emy.” (2021). Research methods in applied linguistics: Quantitative. In An introduction to research methods in applied linguistics: A practical guide (pp. 125–128). UB Press
  20. Wei, L. (2011). Moment analysis and translanguaging space: Discursive construction of identities by multilingual Chinese youth in Britain. Journal of Pragmatics, 43(5), 1222–1235.
  21. Wiley, T. G., & García, O. (2016). Language policy and planning in language education: Legacies, consequences, and possibilities. Modern Language Journal, 100, 48–63.
  22. Ye, X. (2023). Code-switching in Chinese junior secondary school efl classes: Functions and student preferences. Language Learning Journal, 51(3), 263–278.
  23. Yletyinen, H. (2004). The functions of Code Switching in EFL Classroom (Master’s Thesis, University of Jyväskylä

Last update:

No citation recorded.

Last update:

No citation recorded.