Pengaruh Deep-Fat Frying terhadap Kandungan Asam Glutamat pada Bumbu Penyedap Granul Spirulina sp.

*Bernadeta Pingkan Larasati -  Program Studi Teknologi Pangan, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Universitas Katolik Soegijapranata, Semarang, Indonesia
Victoria Kristina Ananingsih -  Program Studi Teknologi Pangan, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Universitas Katolik Soegijapranata, Semarang, Indonesia
Laksmi Hartayanie -  Program Studi Teknologi Pangan, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Universitas Katolik Soegijapranata, Semarang, Indonesia
Alberta Rika Pratiwi -  Program Studi Teknologi Pangan, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Universitas Katolik Soegijapranata, Semarang, Indonesia
Received: 3 Oct 2018; Revised: 25 May 2019; Accepted: 26 May 2019; Published: 3 Jun 2019; Available online: 3 Jun 2019.
Open Access Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Citation Format:
Article Info
Section: Artikel Penelitian (Research Article)
Language: ID-ID
Full Text:
Statistics: 24 25
Abstract

Abstrak

Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui pengaruh deep-fat frying terhadap kandungan asam glutamat bumbu penyedap granul Spirulina sp. yang telah diaplikasikan ke dalam adonan tepung terigu. Penelitian pendahuluan dilakukan untuk menghasilkan tiga formulasi bumbu penyedap granul Spirulina sp berdasarkan kadar gula dan kadar garam bumbu 3 produk komersial. Tiga formulasi penyedap granul Spirulina sp diaplikasikan ke dalam tepung terigu yang kemudian digoreng dengan metode deep-fat frying pada suhu 140, 160, dan 180oC hingga matang. Adonan sebelum dan sesudah penggorengan dianalisis warnanya menggunakan chromameter. Kandungan asam glutamat adonan setelah penggorengan kemudian dianalisis menggunakan L-glutamate assay kit dan diuji spektrofotometer pada panjang gelombang 492 nm. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa proses penggorengan menyebabkan perubahan warna pada adonan. Peningkatan suhu penggorengan dari 140 ke 180oC menyebabkan penurunan nilai L* dari ±47 ke ±39, penurunan nilai b* dari ±26 ke ±19, serta peningkatan nilai a* dari ±8 ke ±10. Hasil penelitian juga menunjukkan peningkatan suhu penggorengan 140 ke 180oC yang menyebabkan penurunan kandungan asam glutamat adonan bumbu penyedap granul Spirulina sp. dari ±8 menjadi ±3 mg/100g. Kesimpulannya, peningkatan suhu penggorengan menyebabkan perubahan warna dan penurunan kandungan asam glutamat pada semua formulasi bumbu penyedap yang diimplentasikan pada adonan tepung terigu.

Effect of Deep-Fat Frying to The Glutamic Acid Content in Spirulina sp. Granule Flavor Enhancer

Abstract

This research aims to determine the effect of deep-fat frying on the content of glutamic acid in Spirulina sp. granule flavor enhancer that has been applied to the flour dough. Preliminary research was produced three formulas of Spirulina sp. granule flavor enhancer, that were formulated based on sugar and salt content on three commercial seasoning brands. Thus, three formulas were applied to wheat flour then fried with deep-fat frying method at 140, 160, and 180oC until cooked well. The color of doughs before and after frying were analyzed using chromameter. The glutamic acid content were analyzed using L-glutamate assay kit and tested by spectrophotometer at 492 nm. As results, frying process changed the color of the dough. The increase in the frying temperature from 140 to 180oC caused a decrease in value of L from ± 47 to ±39, value of b* from ± 26 to ±19, and increase the value of a* from ±8 to ±10. The increase in the temperature of frying from 140 to 180oC caused a decrease in glutamic acid content of Spirulina sp. from ±8 to ±3 mg/100 g. As conclusion, increase in the frying temperature might cause a change in color and decreased content of glutamic acid in the doughs.

Keywords
Spirulina sp.; bumbu penyedap granul; asam glutamat; deep-fat frying; granules flavor enhancer; glutamic acid

Article Metrics:

  1. Ba, H.V., Hwang, I., Jeong, D., Touseef, A. 2012. Principle of meat aroma flavors and future prospect. In: Akyar I, editor. Engineering technology in medicine. DOI: 10.5772/51110
  2. Bag, S.K., Srivastav, P.P., Mishra, H.N. 2011. Optimization of process parameters for foaming of Bael (Aegle marmelos L.) fruit pulp. Food and Bioprocess Technology 4(8):1450–1458. DOI: 10.1007/s11947-009-0243-6.
  3. Banies, D., Brown, D. 2016. Flavor enhancers: Characteristics and uses. Encyclopedia of Food and Health. 716-723. DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-12-384947-2.00297-X.
  4. Contreras-Calderón, J., Guerra-Hernández, E., García-Villanova, B. 2009. Utility of some indicators related to the Maillard browning reaction during processing of infant formulas. Food Chemistry 114:1265-1270. DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.11.004.
  5. De Oliveira, F.C., Coimbra, J.S., Dos R., De Oliveira, E.B., Zuniga, A.D.G., Rojas, E.E.G. 2014. Food protein-polysaccharide conjugates obtained via the Maillard reaction – A review. Critical Review in Food Science and Nutrition 13:37-41. DOI: 10.1080/10408398.2012.755669.
  6. Dewi, E.N., Amalia, U., Mel, M. 2016. The effect of different treatments to the amino acid contents of micro algae Spirulina sp. Aquatic Procedia 7:59-65. DOI: 10.1016/j.aqpro.2016.07.008.
  7. Echavarría, A.P., Torras, C., Pagan, J., Ibarz, A. 2011. Fruit juice processing and membrane technology application. Food Engineering Review 3:136-158. DOI:10.1007/s12393-011-9042-8.
  8. Echavarria, A.P., Pagan, J., Ibarz, A. 2016. Kinetics of color development in glucose/amino acid model systems at different temperatures. Scientia Agropecuaria 7(1):15-21. DOI: 10.17268/sci. agropecu.2016.01.02.
  9. Fellows, P.J. 2009. Food Processing Technology 3rd Edition Principles and Practice. Woodhead Publishing, Cambridge. DOI:10.1533/ 9781845696344.frontmatter.
  10. Habib, M.A.B., Parvin, M., Huntington, T.C., Hasan, M.R. 2008. A review on culture, production and use of Spirulina as food for humans and feeds for domestic animals and fish. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Circular No. 1034, Rome.
  11. Hartiati, A., Mulyani, S. 2015. The Effect of Maltodextrin Concentration and Drying Temperature to Antioxidant Content of Sinom Beverage Powder. Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia 3:231–234. DOI: 10.1016/j.aaspro.2015.01.045.
  12. Jaeger, H., Janositz, A., Knorr, D. 2010. The Maillard reaction and its control during food processing. The potential of emerging technologies. Pathologie Biologie 58(3):207-13. DOI:10.1016/j. patbio.2009.09.016.
  13. Jinap, S., Hajeb, P. 2010. Glutamate. Its applications in food and contribution to health. Appetite. 55:1–10. DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2010.05.002.
  14. Kuo, K.K., Acharya, R. 2012. Fundamentals of Turbulent and Multiphase Combustion. I. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
  15. Kurihara, K. 2015. Umami the fifth basic taste: history of studies on receptor mechanisms and role as a food flavor. BioMed Research International. DOI: 10.1155/2015/189402.
  16. Lee, N., Foustoukos, D.I., Sverjensky, D.A., Cody, G.D., Hazen, R.M. 2014. The effects of temperature, pH, and redox state on the stability of glutamic acid in hydrothermal fluids. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 135:66-86. DOI: 10.1016/j.gca.2014.02.043.
  17. Mallikarjunan, P.K., Ngadi, M.O., Chinnan, M.S. 2010. Breaded Fried Foods. CRC Press. Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton.
  18. Moorhead, K., Capelli, B., Cysewski, G.R. 2011. Spirulina “Nature’s Superfood”. Cyanotech Corporation, Hawaii.
  19. Ngadi, M., Adedeji, A.A., Kassama, L. 2008. Microstructural changes during frying of foods. Advances in Deep-Fat Frying of Foods. CRC Press. Boca Raton. 169-200.
  20. Ninomiya, K. 2015. Science of umami taste: adaptation to gastronomic culture. Flavour 4:13. DOI: 10.1186/2044-7248-4-13.
  21. Oluwaniyi, O.O., Dosumu, O.O., Awolola, G.V. 2010. Effect of local processing methods (boiling, frying, and roasting) on the amino acid composition of four marine fish commonly consumed in Nigeria. Food Chemistry. 123(10):1000-1006. DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem. 2010.05.051.
  22. Purba, Maijon. 2014. Pembentukan flavor daging unggas oleh proses pemanasan dan oksidasi lipida. WARTAZOA 24(3):109-118. DOI: 10.14334/wartazoa.v24i3.1068
  23. Sangamithra, A., Venkatachalam, S., John, S.G., Kuppuswamy, K. 2014. Foam mat drying of food materials: A review. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. DOI: 10.1111/jfpp.12421.
  24. Sansone, F., Mencherini, T., Picerno, P., D’Amore, M., Aquino, R.P., Lauro, M.R. 2011. Maltodextrin/ pectin microparticles by spray drying as carrier for nutraceutical extracts. Journal of Food Engineering 105(3):468–476. DOI: 10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2011.03.004.
  25. Valdramidis, V.P., Cullen, P.J., Tiwari, B.K., O’Donnell, C.P. 2010. Quantitative modelling approaches for ascorbic acid degradation and non-enzymatic browning of orange juice during ultrasound processing. Journal of Food Engineering 96(3):449-45. DOI: 10.1016/j.jfoodeng. 2009.08.025.
  26. Winarno, F.G. 2008. Kimia Pangan dan Gizi. Mbrio Press, Bogor.
  27. Yu, A.-N, Tan, Z.-W., Wang, F.-S. 2013. Mechanistic studies on the formation of pyrazines by Maillard reaction between L-ascorbic acid and L-glutamic acid. Food Science and Technology 50:64-71. DOI: 10.1016/j.lwt.2012.07.001.