Graphical Abstract Guide

A Graphical Abstract of each article is mandatory for this journal. The graphical abstract should summarize the contents of the article in a concise, pictorial form designed to capture the attention of a wide readership online. Authors must provide images that clearly represent the work described in the article.

Graphical abstracts should be submitted as a separate file in the online submission system or otherwise, can be submitted by email to after the manuscript has been accepted. Please state the manuscript number in your email subject.

Image size: please provide an image with a size of 500 × 800 pixels (height × width).

Preferred file types: TIFF, JPG, PNG, PDF, or MS Office files.

For detail Guidelines of Graphical abstract, please visit the following page:

See the following for example of the graphical abstract:

Example 1:

graphical abstract 1


Example 2:

graphical abstract 2


Example 3:

graphical abstract 3


Example 4:

graphical abstract 4


Example 5:

graphical abstract 5



Example 6:

graphical abstract 6