Author Guidelines and Online Submission (2021)
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Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, an international journal, provides a forum for publishing the novel technologies related to a catalyst, catalysis, chemical reactor, kinetics, and chemical reaction engineering. Scientific articles dealing with the following topics in chemical reaction engineering, catalysis science, and engineering, catalyst preparation method and characterization, novel innovation of chemical reactor, etc. are particularly welcome.
This journal encompasses original research articles, short communications, review articles (but not preferable), and letter to editor, including: fundamental of catalysis; fundamental of chemical reaction engineering; materials for catalysis; chemistry aspect of catalyst and catalysis; applied chemical reaction engineering; applied catalysis; applied bio-catalysis; applied bio-reactor; membrane bio-reactor; chemical reactor design; catalyst regeneration; surface chemistry of catalyst; bio-catalysis; enzymatic catalytic reaction; industrial practice of catalyst; industrial practice of chemical reactor engineering; application of plasma technology in catalysis and chemical reactor; and advanced technology for chemical reactors. However, articles concerned on the "general chemical engineering process" are not covered and out of the scope of this journal.
All papers submitted to this journal must be written in good English. Authors for whom English is not their native language are encouraged to have their paper be checked before submission for grammar and clarity. Authors are recommended to use the following English Services: Elsevier English Language Editing Services. or ENAGO. The work should not have been published or submitted for publication elsewhere.
1. General Author Guidelines
The following documents should accompany the manuscripts submitted by online through online submission interface (upload as Supplementary Files):
- Signed Copyright Transfer Agreement for Publishing (CTAP) form originally (scan the document after signed or signed electronically) [Download the CTA form here 2020]
- A Covering Letter outlines the basic findings of the paper and its significance.
Three types of manuscripts are acceptable for publication: Original Research Articles, Short Communication, Review Articles (only selected authors), and Letter to Editor.
2. Manuscript Template
The manuscript should be prepared according to the following author guidelines in the MS Word (doc, docx, pdf) article template format: MS Word Template (.docx)
3. Reviewing process manuscripts
Every submitted paper is independently reviewed by at least two peer-reviewers. Authors may suggest up to three peer-reviewers when submitted the manuscript. The decision for publication, amendment, or rejection is based upon their reports/recommendations and made solely by Editor. If two or more reviewers consider a manuscript unsuitable for publication in this journal, a statement explaining the basis for the decision will be sent to the authors after the submission date.
4. Revision of manuscripts
Manuscripts sent back to the authors after revision should be returned to the editor without delay. The revised manuscript should be uploaded to the Online Submission Interface (https://ejournal2.undip.ac.id/index.php/bcrec) in the "Upload Author Version" from Review task window.
The revised document should include:
- One (1) file of "Revision Note file in a table form" with respect to Reviewers comments including the location of the revision on the revised manuscript. Template MS Word File of this Revision Note can be downloaded here: https://bit.ly/3cvzcS8
- One (1) file of "Revised Manuscript file" according to Template-based format (MS Word file) (please blue-color highlighted texts in the revised sentences).
- One (1) file of "Graphical Abstract file" according to Guideline of Graphical Abstract (https://ejournal2.undip.ac.id/index.php/bcrec/pages/view/graphicalabstract).
5. Graphical Abstract
A Graphical Abstract of each article is mandatory for this journal. This graphic should capture the reader’s attention and, in conjunction with the manuscript title, should give the reader a quick visual impression of the essence of the manuscript without providing specific results.
Graphical abstracts should be submitted as a separate file in the online submission system (as Supplementary Data File) or otherwise, can be submitted by email to firstname.lastname@example.org after the manuscript has been accepted. Please state the manuscript number in your email subject.
Choosing/Creating a Graphical Abstract:
- The graphic should be simple, but informative.
- The use of color is encouraged.
- The graphic should uphold the standards of a scholarly, professional publication.
- The graphic must be entirely original, unpublished artwork created by one of the coauthors.
- The graphic should not include a photograph, drawing, or caricature of any person, living or deceased.
- Do not include postage stamps or currency from any country, or trademarked items (company logos, images, and products).
- Avoid choosing a graphic that already appears within the text of the manuscript.
Image size: please provide an image with a size of 500 × 800 pixels (height × width).
Preferred file types: TIFF, JPG, PNG, PDF, or MS Office files.
For detail Guidelines of Graphical abstract, please visit the following page: https://ejournal2.undip.ac.id/index.php/bcrec/pages/view/graphicalabstract
See the following for example of the graphical abstract:
6. Editorial Office of BCREC Journal
All correspondences should be sent to the following Editorial Office:
Prof. Dr. I. Istadi (Editor-in-Chief)
Editorial Office of Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis
Laboratory of Plasma-Catalysis (R3.5), UPT Laboratorium Terpadu, Universitas Diponegoro
Jl. Prof. Soedarto, Semarang, Central Java, Indonesia 50275
7. Guideline for Online Submission
Author should first register as Author Role and may be offered as Reviewer through the following address: https://ejournal2.undip.ac.id/index.php/bcrec/about/submissions#onlineSubmissions
The author should fulfill the form as detail as possible where the star marked form must be entered. After all form textbox was filled, Author clicks on “Register” button to proceed with the registration. Therefore, Author is brought to online author submission interface where Author should click on “New Submission”. In the Start a New Submission section, click on “’Click Here’: to go to step one of the five-step submission process”. The following are five steps in the online submission process:
- Step 1 - Starting the Submission: Select the appropriate section of the journal, i.e. Original Research Articles, Review Article, Short Communication, or Letter to Editor. Thus, the author must check-mark on the submission checklists. An author should type or copy-paste Covering Letter in Letter to Editor.
- Step 2 – Uploading the Submission: To upload a manuscript to this journal, click Browse on the Upload submission file item and choose the manuscript document file (.doc/.docx) to be submitted, then click "Upload" button until the file has been uploaded. Do not upload a cover letter and other supplementary files here.
- Step 3 – Entering Submission’s Metadata: In this step, detail authors metadata should be entered including the marked corresponding author. After that, the manuscript title and abstract must be uploaded by copying the text and paste in the textbox including keywords.
- Step 4 – Uploading Supplementary Files: Supplementary file should be uploaded including Covering/Submission Letter, and Signed Copyright Transfer Agreement Form. Therefore, click on the Browse button, choose the files, and then click on the Upload button.
- Step 5 – Confirming the Submission: Author should final check the uploaded manuscript documents in this step. To submit the manuscript to BCREC journal, click the Finish Submission button after the documents are true. The corresponding author or the principal contact will receive an acknowledgment by email and will be able to view the submission’s progress through the editorial process by logging in to the journal web address site.
After this submission, the Authors who submit the manuscript will get a confirmation email about the submission automatically. Therefore, Authors are able to track their submission status at any time by logging in to the online submission interface. The submission tracking includes a status of manuscript review and editorial process.
8. Author Fee (Article Processing Charge - APC)
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis is an open access international journal. Readers can read and download any full-text articles for free of charge (fully Open Access).
Started from the manuscript submission on July 2020, Author(s) (except for Member of Editors/Editorial Board) should pay an Article Processing Charge (APC) of US$100 per article, once the manuscript was accepted. An invoice will be sent to the Authors who their article was accepted. The accepted articles will not be published until the APC was paid by Author(s). The APC will be used for maintain the DOI registration and the fulltext PDF articles production cost.
9. User Rights (Copyright Notice and Open Access License)
Journal Author(s) Rights
In order for BCREC Group to publish and disseminate research articles, we need publishing rights (transfered from author(s) to publisher). This is determined by a publishing agreement between the Author(s) and BCREC Group. This agreement deals with the transfer or license of the copyright of publishing to BCREC Group, while Authors still retain significant rights to use and share their own published articles. BCREC Group supports the need for authors to share, disseminate and maximize the impact of their research and these rights, in any databases.
As a journal Author, you have rights for a large range of uses of your article, including use by your employing institute or company. These Author rights can be exercised without the need to obtain specific permission. Authors publishing in BCREC journals have wide rights to use their works for teaching and scholarly purposes without needing to seek permission, including:
- use for classroom teaching by Author or Author's institution and presentation at a meeting or conference and distributing copies to attendees;
- use for internal training by author's company;
- distribution to colleagues for their reseearch use;
- use in a subsequent compilation of the author's works;
- inclusion in a thesis or dissertation;
- reuse of portions or extracts from the article in other works (with full acknowledgement of final article);
- preparation of derivative works (other than commercial purposes) (with full acknowledgement of final article);
- voluntary posting on open web sites operated by author or author’s institution for scholarly purposes,
(but it should follow the open access license of Creative Common CC-by-SA License).
Authors/Readers/Third Parties can copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format, as well as remix, transform, and build upon the material for any purpose, even commercially, but they must give appropriate credit (the name of the creator and attribution parties (authors detail information), a copyright notice, an open access license notice, a disclaimer notice, and a link to the material), provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made (Publisher indicates the modification of the material (if any) and retain an indication of previous modifications using a CrossMark Policy and information about Erratum-Corrigendum notification).
Authors/Readers/Third Parties can read, print and download, redistribute or republish the article (e.g. display in a repository), translate the article, download for text and data mining purposes, reuse portions or extracts from the article in other works, sell or re-use for commercial purposes, remix, transform, or build upon the material, they must distribute their contributions under the same license as the original Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike (CC BY-SA).
10. Manuscript Preparation Guidelines
10.1. General Organization of Paper
The paper will be published in BCREC journal after the peer-reviewed process and decided as “Accepted” by Editors. The final paper layout will be reproduced by Editorial Office of BCREC journal. The final paper layout in PDF type, known as “Uncorrected Proof” should be corrected by Author. The final corrected proof will be published first in “Article In Press” or "In Progress" pre-issue.
According to Engelmore and Morgan , manuscript content should, in general, be organized in the following order: Title; Authors Name; Authors Affiliation; Abstract; Keywords; Introduction; Materials and Methods; Results and Discussion; Conclusions; Acknowledgments; and References. Manuscript document submitted to this journal (in one MS Word or PDF file) should be arranged as follow:
- Body text of the manuscript article (from Title to References, without tables and figures)
- Figure Captions and Table Captions. Figures and Tables must be separated from the body text of paper, put after References.
- Figures (one figure per page)
- Tables (one table per page)
Please include Covering Letter in a separate document file containing your summary of scientific findings and uploaded in Supplementary Files.
10.2. Section Headings
Three levels of heading are allowed as follows:
- Level 1 (Heading1 format) - 12pt, Times bold, Title Case, left-justified
- Level 2 (Heading2 format) - 12pt, Times bold, left-justified
- Level 3 (Heading3 format) - 12pt, Times bold italic, left-justified
10.3. Body Text
The body of the text is a set of body text paragraphs defined as follows:
- 12pt Times New Roman
- One-half space, defined as 12pt
- Spacing after the heading is 3pt
- Spacing before the new heading is 12pt
- Indentation for the first line is 1 cm.
Bullet and numbering within body text are not allowed. All sentences should be typed as a descriptive paragraphs.
Tables are sequentially numbered with the table title and number above the table. Tables should be centered in the column OR on the page. Tables should be followed by a line space (12pt). Elements of a table should be single-spaced. However, double spacing can be used to show groupings of data or to separate parts within the table. Table headings should be in 10pt not bold. Tables are referred to in the text by the table number, e.g., Table 1. Do not show the vertical line in the table. There is only a horizontal line that should be shown in the table, as well as table heading.
Figures are sequentially numbered commencing at 1 with the figure title and number below the figure as shown in Figure 1. Detailed recommendations for figures are as follows:
- Ensure that figures are clear and legible with typed letterings.
- Black & white or colored figures are allowed.
- If a figure spans two columns, it should be placed at the top or bottom of a page.
- Hard copy illustrations should, preferably, be scanned and included in the electronic version of the submission in an appropriate format as follows:
- BMP - Microsoft bitmap file
- WMF - Windows Metafile Format
- EPS - Encapsulated Postscript
- If figures cannot be scanned, the original should be placed in its location within the manuscript using wax or colorless glue.
- The following files are permissible:
- Microsoft Graph
- Microsoft Draw
Figure 1 shows an included Microsoft Draw object.
Equations should be numbered serially within parentheses as shown in Equation (1). The equation should be prepared using MS Equation Editor (not in image format). The equation number is to be placed on the extreme right side. Symbols in the equation should be typed as a paragraph descriptive, not as a bulleted list. The explanation of symbols in the Equation must be described as a paragraph not listed format.
10.9. Units, Abbreviations, and Symbols
Metric units are preferred and should be consistent throughout body text. Define abbreviations and symbols for the first time as they are introduced in the text.
10.10. Manuscript Heading, Font, and Spacing
The manuscript should be typed using word processors (Microsoft Word or Open Office) software. The font used throughout the paper is Times New Roman. The paper size is A4 (i.e., 210 x 297 mm), one-column format with a 2.5 cm margin at the top, a 2.5 cm margin at the bottom, 2.5 cm margin on the left, and 2 cm margin on the right. Lines are one-half spaced, justified. Page numbers should be included in the text located in the footer section of each page. Important: Use of pronouns, such as: I, we, etc., is to be avoided.
Manuscript submitted to this journal should follow the heading below, except for the review article: Title; Authors Name; Authors Affiliation; Abstract; Keywords; Introduction; Materials and Methods; Results and Discussion; Conclusions; Acknowledgments; and References.
10.11. Paper Title
This is your opportunity to attract the reader’s attention. Remember that readers are the potential authors who will cite your article. Identify the main issue of the paper within the title. Begin with the subject or highlight the idea of the paper. The title should be accurate, unambiguous, specific, and complete. Do not contain infrequently-used abbreviations.
The title of the paper should be in 16 pt bold Times New Roman and be centered. The title should have 0 pts space above and 12 pts below.
10.12. Authors Name and Affiliations
Write Author(s) names without a title and professional positions, such as: Prof, Dr, Production Manager, etc. Do not abbreviate your last/family name. Always give your First and Last names (should be at least 2 (two) words). The Middle Name is optional. Write a clear affiliation of all Authors. Affiliation includes the name of department/unit, (faculty), the name of university, address, country. Please indicate Corresponding Author (include email address) by adding an asterisk (*) in superscript behind the name.
Author names should be in 10 pt Times Roman bold with 12 pts above and 12 pts below. Author addresses are superscripted by numerals and centered over both columns of manuscripts. Author affiliations should be in 10 pt Times Roman italic. The body of the text should commence two lines (24 points) below the last address.
Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.
As per BCREC Group policy, no author list changes are permitted after acceptance of an article. The BCREC Group production team is instructed to enforce this policy during the production/proofing process.
Authors should consider carefully the list and order of authors before submitting their manuscript. The definitive list of authors should be provided at the time of the initial submission. Any addition, deletion or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list should be made only BEFORE the acceptance of the manuscript and only if approved by the journal Editor. To request such a change, the Editor must receive the following from the authors: (a) the reason for the change in author list and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed. The Editor retains the right to determine whether the addition or deletion of authors should be performed or not. The addition of deletion of author names in proofs is strictly prohibited.
10.13. Abstract and Keywords
An abstract should stand alone, which means that no citation and figures and equation format in the abstract. Consider it the advertisement for your article. The abstract should tell the prospective reader what you did and highlight the key findings. Avoid using technical jargon and uncommon abbreviations. You must be accurate, brief, clear and specific. Use words that reflect the precise meaning. The abstract should be precise and honest. Please follow the word limitations (100‐250 words).
The abstract must contain: backgrounds (if any, maximum 2-3 sentences), short clear objectives, short methods, final results or findings, and conclusion.
Keywords are the labels of your manuscript and critical to correct indexing and searching. Therefore the keywords should represent the content and highlight of your article. Use only those abbreviations that are firmly established in the field. e.g. DNA. Each word/phrase in keyword should be separated by a semicolon (;), not a comma (,).
In the Introduction, Authors should state the objectives of the work at the end of the introduction section. Before the objective, Authors should provide an adequate background (maximum 1 paragraph), and very short literatures survey/review in order to record the existing solutions/method, to show which is the best of previous researches, to show the main limitation of the previous researches, to show what do you hope to achieve (to solve the limitation), and to show the scientific merit or novelties of the paper. Avoid a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results. Do not describe pieces of literature survey/review as author by author, but should be presented as group per method or topic reviewed which refers to some literatures. Before the objectives and after the literatures review, author must state the gap analysis or novelties statements to show why does this paper is important and what is unique idea of this paper compared to other previous researchers' suggestions.
One of the examples of novelty statement or the gap analysis statement in the end of Introduction section (after state of the art of previous research survey):
“........ (short summary of background)....... .....(put here state of the art or overview of previous researches similar to this research).............. A few researchers focused on ....... There have been limited studies concerned on ........ Therefore, this research intends to ................. The objectives of this research are .........”.
“........ (short summary of background)....... .....(put here state of the art or overview of previous researches similar to this research).............. A few researchers focused on ....... There is no researcher concerned on ........ Therefore, this research focuses on ................. Therefore, this research is aimed to .........”.
10.15 Materials and Methods
Materials and methods should make readers be able to reproduce the experiment. Provide sufficient detail to allow the work to be reproduced. Methods already published should be indicated by a reference: only relevant modifications should be described. Do not repeat the details of established methods. For the chemicals, please provide details of brand and purity (example: CaO (Merck, 99.5%)) first, and state the concentration of chemicals in the procedure of the experiment.
10.16. Results and Discussion
The results should be clear and concise. The results should summarize (scientific) findings rather than providing data in great detail. Please highlight the differences between your results or findings and the previous publications by other researchers. The discussion should explore the significance of the results of the work, not repeat them. A combined Results and Discussion section is often appropriate. Avoid extensive citations and discussion of published literature.
In the discussion, it is the most important section of your article. Here you get the chance to sell your data. Make the discussion corresponding to the results, but do not reiterate the results. Often should begin with a brief summary of the main scientific findings (not experimental results).
The following components should be covered in discussion:
- How do your results relate to the original question or objectives outlined in the Introduction section? What is your finding of research? (what/how)?
- Do you provide interpretation scientifically for each of your results or findings presented? This scientific interpretation must be supported by valid analysis and characterization (why)?
- Are your results consistent with what other investigators have reported (what else)? Or are there any differences?
Conclusions should only answer the objectives of the research. Tells how your work advances the field from the present state of knowledge. Without clear Conclusions, reviewers and readers will find it difficult to judge the work, and whether or not it merits publication in the journal. Do not repeat the Abstract, or just list experimental results. Provide a clear scientific justification for your work, and indicate possible applications and extensions. This conclusion should be provided as a paragraph. You should also suggest future experiments and/or point out those that are underway.
Recognize those who helped in the research, especially funding supporters of your research financially. Include individuals who have assisted you in your study: Advisors, Financial supporters, or may another supporter, i.e. Proofreaders, Typists, and Suppliers, who may have given materials. Do not acknowledge one of the authors' names.
10.19. Citation and References
Cite the main scientific publications on which your work is based. Cite only items that you have read. Do not inflate the manuscript with too many references. Avoid excessive self‐citations. Avoid excessive citations of publications from the same region. Check each reference against the original source (authors name, volume, issue, year, Digital Object Identification (DOI) Number). DOI Number information must be provided (if available). It is suggested to use Reference Manager Applications like EndNote, Mendeley, Zotero, etc. Use other published articles in the same journal as models. The minimum number of references should be 25 references.
Citation within body text of article to reference(s) must follow the numbering system. References must be presented sequentially and sorted to start from first cited reference.
Example: "Dye waste water has become an environmental problem due to the production of paper, textiles, gasoline, cosmetics, food industries, etc. . Dye wastes are toxic, hazardous, and non-biodegradable , which may cause the destruction of aquatic living organisms . As one of the dye compound, methyl orange (MO) is known as an azo anionic type that contains of −N=N− chromophore group and aromatic structure [4,5]."
All publications cited in the text should be included as a list of references. References are sequentially numbered as they appear in the text. Reference numbers are indicated in square brackets. Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but maybe mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either “Unpublished results” or “Personal communication”. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.
As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, a reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.
Please ensure that the words 'this issue' are added to any references in the list (and any citations in the text) to other articles in the same Special Issue.
This journal has to follow standard templates available in key reference management packages EndNote (https://www.endnote.com/support/enstyles.asp), Mendeley (https://www.mendeley.com), or Reference Manager (https://refman.com/support/rmstyles.asp). Using plug-ins to word processing packages, authors only need to select the appropriate journal template when preparing their article and the list of references and citations to these will be formatted according to the journal style, which is described below.
Recommendations for references are:
- Please type all authors names. Using et al. for multiple authors is not acceptable.
- When referencing in the body of text, use 12pt Times Roman in square brackets .
- Types of references are as follows:
- For a Book, see 
- For a Journal Article, see 
- For a Magazine Article, see 
- For a Proceedings Paper, see 
- For a Technical Report, see 
- For a Dissertation or Thesis, see 
- For an Internet Reference (not preferable), see 
When preparing your reference list, the following should be avoided:
- References not cited in the text.
- Excessively referencing your work.
- Insufficiently referencing the work of others.
It is also preferable when Authors give DOI number of each reference list in bracket , but it is optional for Authors. References list must be written consistently, whether the journal titles are written in short (i.e. Bull. Chem. React. Eng. Catal.) or in a long format (Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis). For short title of journals, please follow the standard here: http://www.efm.leeds.ac.uk/~mark/ISIabbr/J_ abrvjt.html
Examples of guideline for preparing references list is described in the last section of this author guidelines.
Citation within body text of article to reference(s) must follow numbering system ("..... , ...... [2-3], etc.") which should be started from references cited first. However, references list must be typed according to American Psychological Association (APA) Version 6.0.
 Authors Last Name(s), First Name(s) in capital shortened. (year). Book Title. Edition. Place: Publisher. ← Book
 (Authors Last Name(s), First Name(s) in capital shortened) Engelmore, R., Morgan, A. (1986). Blackboard Systems. Edition. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley. ← Book
 (Authors Last Name(s), First Name(s) in capital shortened). (year). Article Title. Journal Title. Volume (Issue Number: optional), page number start-page number end. DOI information. ← Journal
 Robinson, A.L. (1980). New Ways to Make Microcircuits Smaller. Science, 208, 1019-1026. DOI: 10.1126/science.208.4447.1019. ← Journal
 Bhavsar, D.S., Saraf, K.B. (2002). Morphology of PbI2 Crystals Grown by Gel Method. Crystal Research and Technology, 37, 51–55. DOI: 10.1002/1521-4079(200202)37:1%3C51::AID-CRAT51%3E3.0.CO;2-N ←Journal
 Li, M., Xing, S., Yang, L., Fu, J., Lv, P., Wang, Z., Yuan, Z. (2019). Nickel-loaded ZSM-5 catalysed hydrogenation of oleic acid: The game between acid sites and metal centres. Applied Catalysis A: General. 587, 117112. DOI: 10.1016/j.apcata.2019.117112. ←Journal
 Clancey, W.J. (1983). Communication, Simulation, and Intelligent Agents: Implications of Personal Intelligent Machines for Medical Education. In Proceedings of the Eighth International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence, 556-560. Menlo Park, Calif.: International Joint Conferences on Artificial Intelligence, Inc. ←Conferences
 Amin, N.A.S., Istadi, I. (2012). Different Tools on Multiobjective Optimization of a Hybrid Artificial Neural Network – Genetic Algorithm for Plasma Chemical Reactor Modelling. In Olympia Roeva (Editor) Real-World Applications of Genetic Algorithms. Croatia: InTech Publisher. ← Book Chapter
 Rice, J. (1986). Polygon: A System for Parallel Problem Solving, Technical Report, KSL-86-19, Dept. of Computer Science, Stanford Univ. ←Report
 Clancey, W.J. (1979). Transfer of Rule-Based Expertise through a Tutorial Dialogue. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Computer Science, Stanford University. ←Thesis
 Ivey, K.C. (2 September 1996). Citing Internet sources URL http://www.eei- alex.com/eye/utw/96aug.html. ←Website (but should be avoided)