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Catalytic Performance of TiO2–Carbon Mesoporous-Derived from Fish Bones in Styrene Oxidation with Aqueous Hydrogen Peroxide as an Oxidant

1Department of Chemical Education, Universitas Mulawarman, Kampus Gunung Kelua, Samarinda, 75119, East Kalimantan, Indonesia

2Chemistry Department, Universitas Mulawarman, Kampus Gunung Kelua, Samarinda, 75119, East Kalimantan,, Indonesia

3Chemistry Department, Universitas Negeri Malang, Indonesia

4 School of Energy and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University Malaysia, Selangor Darul Ehsan 43900, Malaysia, China

5 College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005, China

6 Center for Sustainable Nanomaterials, Ibnu Sina Institute for Scientific and Industrial Research, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru, 81310, Malaysia, Malaysia

7 Central Laboratory of Minerals and Advanced Materials, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, State University of Malang, Malaysia

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Received: 10 Dec 2020; Revised: 3 Feb 2021; Accepted: 4 Feb 2021; Available online: 25 Feb 2021; Published: 31 Mar 2021.
Editor(s): Istadi Istadi
Open Access Copyright (c) 2021 by Authors, Published by BCREC Group under

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The catalytic performance of titania-supported carbon mesoporous-derived from fish bones (TiO2/CFB) has been investigated in styrene oxidation with aqueous H2O2. The preparation steps of (TiO2/CFB) catalyst involved the carbonization of fish bones powder at 500 °C for 2 h. followed by impregnation of titania using titanium(IV) isopropoxide (500 µmol) precursor, and calcined at 350 °C for 3 h. The physical properties of the adsorbents were characterized using Fourier transform infrared, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX), and nitrogen adsorption-desorption studies. The catalytic test was carried out using styrene oxidation with H2O2 as an oxidant at room temperature for 24 h. Its catalytic activity was compared with Fe2O3/CFB, CuO/CFB, TiO2, and CFB catalysts. It is demonstrated that the catalytic activity of TiO2/CFB catalyst has the highest compared to Fe2O3/CFB, CuO/CFB, TiO2, and CFB catalysts in the oxidation of styrene with styrene conversion ~23% and benzaldehyde selectivity ~90%. Kinetics of TiO2/CFB catalyzed oxidation of styrene has been investigated and mechanism for oxidation of styrene has been proposed. Copyright © 2021 by Authors, Published by BCREC Group. This is an open access article under the CC BY-SA   License (


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Keywords: Titania; Fish bones; Carbon; Oxidation; Styrene; Hydrogen peroxide
Funding: Kemenristek/BRIN under contract Islamic development bank (IsDB) under contract contract number: 303/UN17.11/PL/2020

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