Nano-Magnetic Catalyst CaO-Fe3O4 for Biodiesel Production from Date Palm Seed Oil

DOI: https://doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.12.3.923.460-468
Copyright (c) 2017 Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Cover Image

Article Metrics: (Click on the Metric tab below to see the detail)

Article Info
Submitted: 25-01-2017
Published: 28-10-2017
Section: Original Research Articles
Fulltext PDF Tell your colleagues Email the author

A nanocatalyst of CaO supported by Fe3O4 magnetic particles was prepared by a chemical precipitation method. It was characterized by various techniques including X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM); Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and Hammett indicator. It has been found that the catalyst consists of CaO and Fe3O4 accompanied by CaFe2O4. This composite catalyst was used for the catalytic transesterification of palm seed oil. The results revealed that the highest biodiesel yields for palm seed oil of 69.7% can be obtained under the conditions of (65 °C reaction temperature, 300 min reaction time, 20 methanol/oil molar ratio, and 10 wt.% of CaO/Fe3O4 catalyst loading). The physicochemical properties of the biodiesel produced from palm seed oil were further studied and compared with the ASTM and the EN biodiesel specifications. The results showed that the properties of the biodiesel produced comply with the international standard specifications. Copyright © 2017 BCREC Group. All rights reserved

Received: 25th January 2017; Revised: 11st July 2017; Accepted: 12nd July 2017; Available online: 27th October 2017; Published regularly: December 2017

How to Cite: Ali, M.A., Al-Hydary, I.A., Al-Hattab, T.A. (2017). Nano-Magnetic Catalyst CaO-Fe3O4 for Biodiesel Production from Date Palm Seed Oil. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 12 (3): 460-468 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.12.3.923.460-468)

 

Keywords

Biodiesel; Nano-magnetic catalyst; Transesterification; Metal oxide; Palm seed oil

  1. Mortadha A Ali 
    Department of Electrochemical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Babylon, Hilla City, Iraq
  2. Imad A. Al-Hydary 
    Department of Ceramics and Building Materials, College of Materials Engineering, University of Babylon, Hilla City, Iraq
  3. Tahseen A Al-Hattab 
    Department of Electrochemical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Babylon, Hilla City,, Iraq
  1. Maceiras, R., Vega, M., Costa, C., Ramos, P., Márquez, M.C. (2009). Effect of methanol content on enzymatic production of biodiesel from waste frying oil. Fuel, 88: 2130-2134.
  2. Zhanga, Y., Dubé, M.A., McLean, D.D., Kates, M. (2003). Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil: Economic assessment and sensitivity analysis. Bioresource Technology, 90: 229-240.
  3. Demirbas, A. (2008). Biodiesel: a realistic fuel alternative for diesel engines. Springer. London.
  4. Ma, F., Hanna, M.A. (1999): Biodiesel production: a review. Bioresource Technology, 70: 1-15.
  5. Semwal, S., Arora, A.K., Badoni R.P., Tuli, D.K. (2011). Biodiesel production using heterogeneous catalysts. Bioresource Technology, 102: 2151-2161.
  6. Farooq, M., Ramli, A., Subbarao, D. (2013). Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil using bifunctional heterogeneous solid catalysts. Journal of Cleaner Production, 59: 131-140.
  7. Endalew, A.K., Kiros, Y., Zanzi, R. (2011). Heterogeneous catalysis for biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas oil (JCO). Energy, 36: 2693-2700.
  8. Kafuku, G., Mbarawa, M. (2010). Alkaline catalyzed biodiesel production from moringa oleifera oil with optimized production parameters. Applied Energy, 87: 2561-2565.
  9. Gao, L., Teng, G., Lv, J., Xiao, G. (2010). Biodiesel synthesis catalyzed by the KF/Ca-Mg-Al hydrotalcite base catalyst. Energy Fuels, 24: 646-651.
  10. Xue, B., Luo, J., Zhang, F., Fang, Z. (2014). Biodiesel production from soybean and Jatropha oils by magnetic CaFe2O4-Ca2Fe2O5-based catalyst. Energy, 68: 584-591.
  11. Kouzu, M., Kasuno, T., Tajika, M., Sugimoto, Y., Yamanaka, S., Hidaka, J. (2008). Calcium oxides a solid base catalyst for transesterification of soybean oil and its application to biodiesel production. Fuel, 87: 2798-2806.
  12. Hu, S., Guan, Y., Wang, Y., Han, H. (2011). Nano-magnetic catalyst KF/CaO-Fe3O4 for biodiesel production. Applied Energy, 88: 2685-2690.
  13. Ying, M., Chen, G. (2007). Study on the production of biodiesel by magnetic cell biocatalyst based on lipase-producing Bacillus subtilis. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology: 137: 793-803.
  14. Xie, W., Ma, N. (2009).Immobilized lipase on Fe3O4 nanoparticles as biocatalyst for biodiesel production. Energy & Fuels, 23: 1347-1353
  15. Taufiq-Yap, Y.H., Teo, S.H., Rashid, U., Islam, A., Hussein, M.Z., Lee, K.T. (2014). Transesterification of Jatropha curcas crude oil to biodiesel on calcium lanthanum mixed oxide catalyst: Effect of stoichiometric composition. Energy Conversion and Management, 88: 1290-1296.
  16. Charoenchaitrakool, M., Thienmethangkoon, J. (2011). Statistical optimization for biodiesel production from waste frying oil through two-step catalyzed process. Fuel Processing Technology, 92: 112-118.
  17. Tariq, M., Ali, S., Ahmad, F., Ahmad, M., Zafar, M., Khalid, N., Khan, M.A. (2011). Identification, FT-IR, NMR (1H and 13C) and GC/MS studies of fatty acid methyl esters in biodiesel from rocket seed oil. Fuel Processing Technology, 92: 336-341.
  18. Birla, A., Singh, B., Upadhyay, S.N., Sharma, Y.C. (2012). Kinetics studies of synthesis of biodiesel from waste frying oil using a heterogeneous catalyst derived from snail shell. Bioresource Technology, 106: 95-100.
  19. Amani, M.A., Davoudi, M.S., Tahvildari, K., Nabavi, S.M., Davoudi, M.S. (2013). Biodiesel production from Phoenix dactylifera as a new feedstock. Industrial Crops and Products, 43: 40-43
  20. Tran, D., Chen, C., Chang, J. (2012). Immobilization of Burkholderia sp. lipase on a ferric silica nanocomposite for biodiesel production. Biotechnology, 158: 112- 119.
  21. Yu, C., Huang, L., Kuan, I., Lee, S. (2013). Optimized Production of Biodiesel from Waste Cooking Oil by Lipase Immobilized on Magnetic Nanoparticles. International Journal of Molecular Sciences,14: 24074-24086.
  22. Jacyna-Onyszkiewicz, I., Grunwald-Wyspianska, M., Kaczmarek, W. (1997). IR Studies of the Phase Transformation of Fe2O3 to Fe3O4 by Magnetomechanical Activation. Journal de Physique IV: 7, 615- 616.
  23. Shu, Z., Wang, S. (2009). Synthesis and Characterization of Magnetic Nanosized Fe3O4/MnO2 Composite Particles. Journal of Nanomaterials, 10: 1-6.
  24. Buchori, L., Istadi, I., Purwanto, P. (2017). Effects of Weight Hourly Space Velocity and Catalyst Diameter on Performance of Hybrid Catalytic-Plasma Reactor for Biodiesel Synthesis over Sulphated Zinc Oxide Acid Catalyst. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 12 (2): 227-234.
  25. Hsiao, M., Lin, C., Chang, Y. (2011). Microwave irradiation-assisted transesterification of soybean oil to biodiesel catalyzed by nanopowder calcium oxide. Fuel, 90: 1963-1967.
  26. Sohpal, V.K., Singh, A., Dey, A. (2011). Fuzzy Modeling to Evaluate the Effect of Temperature on Batch Transesterification of Jatropha Curcas for Biodiesel Production. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 6(1): 31-38.
  27. ASTM D6751. Standard Specification for Biodiesel Fuel Blend Stock (B100) for Middle Distillate Fuels.