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Kinetic Studies of the Glycerolysis of Urea to Glycerol Carbonate in the Presence of Amberlyst-15 as Catalyst

1Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia

2Department of Polymer Chemical Engineering, Politeknik STMI, 10510, Indonesia

3Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Wahid Hasyim, Indonesia

Received: 8 Sep 2020; Revised: 19 Jan 2021; Accepted: 20 Jan 2021; Available online: 29 Jan 2021; Published: 31 Mar 2021.
Editor(s): Bunjerd Jongsomjit
Open Access Copyright (c) 2021 by Authors, Published by BCREC Group under

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Amberlyst-15, a strong acidic ion-exchange resin, has showed as a potential and an effective catalyst for the glycerolysis process of urea to glycerol carbonate. In this work, the kinetic model of the urea glycerolysis over Amberlyst-15 catalyst was investigated. The kinetic model was developed by considering simultaneous steps of urea dissolution in glycerol, mass transfer of urea and glycerol from the bulk of the liquid into the outer part of the catalyst, diffusion of urea and glycerol into the inner part of the particle through the catalyst pores, and irreversible second order reaction of urea and glycerol on the active sites. The irreversibility of second order reaction of urea glycerolysis was validated and proven. The proposed kinetic model was simulated and validated with the experimental data. The kinetic studies show that mechanism proposed works well. Furthermore, the activation energy was found to be 145.58 kJ.mol1 and the collision factor was in 8.00×1010 (m3)2.kg1.mol1.s1. The simulation result shows that the predicted liquid temperatures were close to the experimental temperature data. It also gave glycerol concentration profile inside the catalyst particle as a function of glycerolysis time and position. Copyright © 2021 by Authors, Published by BCREC Group. This is an open access article under the CC BY-SA License (


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Keywords: Amberlyst-15; Glycerolysis; Glycerol carbonate; Kinetics; Urea
Funding: Ministry of Research, Technology and Higher Education of Republic of Indonesia

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