Biodiesel Production from Nyamplung (Calophyllum inophyllum) Oil using Ionic Liquid as A Catalyst and Microwave Heating System

Copyright (c) 2017 Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Cover Image

Article Metrics: (Click on the Metric tab below to see the detail)

Article Info
Submitted: 21-11-2016
Published: 01-08-2017
Section: The 2nd International Seminar on Chemistry (ISoC 2016) (Surabaya, 26-27 July 2016)
Fulltext PDF Tell your colleagues Email the author

Nyamplung (Calophyllum inophyllum) is a typical Indonesian plant. Its seed contains abundant inedible oil, and therefore it is potential for biodiesel feedstock. The current issues of biodiesel are longer  reaction time of oil to biodiesel through transesterification reaction and lower biodiesel yield due to ineffective use of a homogenous catalyst. This work was aimed to use an ionic liquid as a catalyst and equipped with microwave heating as the heating system in order to increase the biodiesel yield and accelerate the process. Effects of the catalyst concentration and power of microwave irradiation to the biodiesel yield were studied. The ionic liquid of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulfate (BMIMHSO4) was used as a catalyst. The results showed that the highest biodiesel yield was achieved of 92.81% which was catalyzed by IL0.5NaOH0.5 (0.5 wt.% (BMIMHSO4) + 0.5 wt.% NaOH) with a methanol-to-oil molar ratio of 9, a reaction time of 6 minutes, and the microwave temperature was 60 °C. Copyright © 2017 BCREC Group. All rights reserved

Received: 21st November 2016; Revised: 7th March 2017; Accepted: 9th March 2017

How to Cite: Handayani, P.A., Abdullah, A., Hadiyanto, H. (2017). Biodiesel Production from Nyamplung (Calophyllum inophyllum) Oil using Ionic Liquid as A Catalyst and Microwave Heating System. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 12 (2): 293-298 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.12.2.807.293-298)




Biodiesel; ionic liquids; calophyllum inophyllum oil; microwave

  1. Prima Astuti Handayani 
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Semarang State University, Kampus Unnes Sekaran Gunungpati, Semarang 50229,, Indonesia
  2. Abdullah Abdullah 
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Diponegoro University, Jl. Prof. Soedarto, Kampus Undip Tembalang, Semarang 50239,, Indonesia
  3. Hadiyanto Hadiyanto 
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Diponegoro University, Jl. Prof. Soedarto, Kampus Undip Tembalang, Semarang 50239,, Indonesia
  1. Ong, H.C., Mahlia, T.M.I., Masjuki, H.H., Norhasyima, R.S. (2011). Comparison of Palm Oil, Jatropha Curcas, and Calophyllum Inophyllum for Biodiesel: A Review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy 15: 3501-3515.
  2. Fukuda, H., Kondo, A., Noda, H. (2001). Biodiesel fuel production by transesterification of oils. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering. 92: 405-416.
  3. Fauzi, A.H.M., Amin, N.A.S. (2012). An Overview of Ionic Liquids as Solvents in Biodiesel Synthesis. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 16: 5770-5786.
  4. Wu, Q., Chen, H., Han, M., Wang, D., Wang, J. (2007). Transesterification of Cottonseed Oil Catalyzed by Brønsted Acidic Ionic Liquids. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 46: 7955-7960.
  5. Gude, V.G., Patil, P., Guerra, E.M., Deng, S., Nirmnalakhanda, N. (2013). Microwave Energy Potential for Biodiesel Production (Review). Sustainable Chemical Processes. 1: 1-31.
  6. Lin, Y.C., Yang, P.M., Chen, S.C., Tu, Y.T., Lin, J.F. (2013). Biodiesel Production Assisted by 4-Allyl-4-Methylmorpholin-4-Ium Bromine Ionic liquid and a Microwave Heating System. Applied Thermal Engineering. 61(2): 570-576.
  7. Elsheikh, Y.A., Man, Z., Bustam, M.A., Yusup, S., Wilfred C.D. (2011). Brønsted Imidazolium Ionic liquid: Synthesis And Comparison of Their Catalytic Activities as Pre-Catalyst for Biodiesel Production Through Two Stage Process. Energy Conversion and Management. 52: 804-809.
  8. Fauzi, A.H.M., Amin, N.A. (2013) Optimization of Oleic Acid Esterification Catalyzed by Ionic Liquid for Green Biodiesel Synthesis. Energy Conversion and Management. 76: 818-827.
  9. Lin, Y.C., Yang, P.M., Chen, S.C., Lin, J.F. (2013). Improving Biodiesel Yields from Waste Cooking Oil using Ionic Liquid as catalyst with a Microwave Heating System. Fuel Processing Technology. 115: 57-62.
  10. Han, M., Yi, W., Wu, Q., Liu, Y, Hong, Y., Wang, D. (2009). Preparation of Biodiesel from Waste Oils Catalyzed by a Bronsted Acidic Ionic Liquid. Bioresource Technology. 100: 2308-2310.
  11. Ullah, Z., Bustam, M. A., Man, Z. (2015). Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oil by Acidic Ionic liquid as a Catalyst. Renewable Energy. 77: 521-526.
  12. Yuan, H., Yang, B.L., Zhu G.L. (2009). Syntesis of Biodiesel using Microwave Absorption Catalyst. Energy & Fuels 23: 548- 552.
  13. Sherbiny, S.A.E., Refaat, A.A., Sheltaway, S.T.E. (2010). Production of Biodiesel using The Microwave Technique. Journal of Advanced Research. 1: 309-314.
  14. Perreux, L., Loupy, A. (2001). A Tentative Rationalization of Microwave Effects in Organic Synthesis According to The Reaction Medium, and Mechanistic Considerations. Tetrahedron. 57: 9199-9223.
  15. Motasemi, F., Ani, F.N. (2012). A Review on Microwave-Assisted Production of Biodiesel. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 16(7): 4719-4733.