Biodiesel Production from Nyamplung (Calophyllum inophyllum) Oil using Ionic Liquid as A Catalyst and Microwave Heating System

Prima Astuti Handayani  -  Department of Chemical Engineering, Semarang State University, Kampus Unnes Sekaran Gunungpati, Semarang 50229,, Indonesia
Abdullah Abdullah  -  Department of Chemical Engineering, Diponegoro University, Jl. Prof. Soedarto, Kampus Undip Tembalang, Semarang 50239,, Indonesia
*Hadiyanto Hadiyanto  -  Department of Chemical Engineering, Diponegoro University, Jl. Prof. Soedarto, Kampus Undip Tembalang, Semarang 50239,, Indonesia
Received: 21 Nov 2016; Revised: 7 Mar 2017; Accepted: 9 Mar 2017; Published: 1 Aug 2017; Available online: 8 May 2017.
Open Access Copyright (c) 2017 Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis
License URL:

Citation Format:
Cover Image

Nyamplung (Calophyllum inophyllum) is a typical Indonesian plant. Its seed contains abundant inedible oil, and therefore it is potential for biodiesel feedstock. The current issues of biodiesel are longer  reaction time of oil to biodiesel through transesterification reaction and lower biodiesel yield due to ineffective use of a homogenous catalyst. This work was aimed to use an ionic liquid as a catalyst and equipped with microwave heating as the heating system in order to increase the biodiesel yield and accelerate the process. Effects of the catalyst concentration and power of microwave irradiation to the biodiesel yield were studied. The ionic liquid of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulfate (BMIMHSO4) was used as a catalyst. The results showed that the highest biodiesel yield was achieved of 92.81% which was catalyzed by IL0.5NaOH0.5 (0.5 wt.% (BMIMHSO4) + 0.5 wt.% NaOH) with a methanol-to-oil molar ratio of 9, a reaction time of 6 minutes, and the microwave temperature was 60 °C. Copyright © 2017 BCREC Group. All rights reserved

Received: 21st November 2016; Revised: 7th March 2017; Accepted: 9th March 2017

How to Cite: Handayani, P.A., Abdullah, A., Hadiyanto, H. (2017). Biodiesel Production from Nyamplung (Calophyllum inophyllum) Oil using Ionic Liquid as A Catalyst and Microwave Heating System. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 12 (2): 293-298 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.12.2.807.293-298)



Keywords: Biodiesel; ionic liquids; calophyllum inophyllum oil; microwave

Article Metrics:

  1. Ong, H.C., Mahlia, T.M.I., Masjuki, H.H., Norhasyima, R.S. (2011). Comparison of Palm Oil, Jatropha Curcas, and Calophyllum Inophyllum for Biodiesel: A Review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy 15: 3501-3515
  2. Fukuda, H., Kondo, A., Noda, H. (2001). Biodiesel fuel production by transesterification of oils. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering. 92: 405-416
  3. Fauzi, A.H.M., Amin, N.A.S. (2012). An Overview of Ionic Liquids as Solvents in Biodiesel Synthesis. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 16: 5770-5786
  4. Wu, Q., Chen, H., Han, M., Wang, D., Wang, J. (2007). Transesterification of Cottonseed Oil Catalyzed by Brønsted Acidic Ionic Liquids. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 46: 7955-7960
  5. Gude, V.G., Patil, P., Guerra, E.M., Deng, S., Nirmnalakhanda, N. (2013). Microwave Energy Potential for Biodiesel Production (Review). Sustainable Chemical Processes. 1: 1-31
  6. Lin, Y.C., Yang, P.M., Chen, S.C., Tu, Y.T., Lin, J.F. (2013). Biodiesel Production Assisted by 4-Allyl-4-Methylmorpholin-4-Ium Bromine Ionic liquid and a Microwave Heating System. Applied Thermal Engineering. 61(2): 570-576
  7. Elsheikh, Y.A., Man, Z., Bustam, M.A., Yusup, S., Wilfred C.D. (2011). Brønsted Imidazolium Ionic liquid: Synthesis And Comparison of Their Catalytic Activities as Pre-Catalyst for Biodiesel Production Through Two Stage Process. Energy Conversion and Management. 52: 804-809
  8. Fauzi, A.H.M., Amin, N.A. (2013) Optimization of Oleic Acid Esterification Catalyzed by Ionic Liquid for Green Biodiesel Synthesis. Energy Conversion and Management. 76: 818-827
  9. Lin, Y.C., Yang, P.M., Chen, S.C., Lin, J.F. (2013). Improving Biodiesel Yields from Waste Cooking Oil using Ionic Liquid as catalyst with a Microwave Heating System. Fuel Processing Technology. 115: 57-62
  10. Han, M., Yi, W., Wu, Q., Liu, Y, Hong, Y., Wang, D. (2009). Preparation of Biodiesel from Waste Oils Catalyzed by a Bronsted Acidic Ionic Liquid. Bioresource Technology. 100: 2308-2310
  11. Ullah, Z., Bustam, M. A., Man, Z. (2015). Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oil by Acidic Ionic liquid as a Catalyst. Renewable Energy. 77: 521-526
  12. Yuan, H., Yang, B.L., Zhu G.L. (2009). Syntesis of Biodiesel using Microwave Absorption Catalyst. Energy & Fuels 23: 548- 552
  13. Sherbiny, S.A.E., Refaat, A.A., Sheltaway, S.T.E. (2010). Production of Biodiesel using The Microwave Technique. Journal of Advanced Research. 1: 309-314
  14. Perreux, L., Loupy, A. (2001). A Tentative Rationalization of Microwave Effects in Organic Synthesis According to The Reaction Medium, and Mechanistic Considerations. Tetrahedron. 57: 9199-9223
  15. Motasemi, F., Ani, F.N. (2012). A Review on Microwave-Assisted Production of Biodiesel. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 16(7): 4719-4733

Last update: 2021-05-16 13:41:37

No citation recorded.

Last update: 2021-05-16 13:41:37

  1. A review on microwave-assisted transesterification processes using various catalytic and non-catalytic systems

    Nayak S.. Renewable Energy, 127 , 2019. doi: 10.1016/j.renene.2019.05.056
  2. Plasma-assisted catalytic cracking as an advanced process for vegetable oils conversion to biofuels: A mini review

    Riyanto T.. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, 59 (40), 2020. doi: 10.1021/acs.iecr.0c03253
  3. Enabling technologies and sustainable catalysis in biodiesel preparation

    Bucciol F.. Catalysts, 10 (9), 2020. doi: 10.3390/catal10090988
  4. Preparation of microalgae biodiesel by direct transesterification under microwave- assisted ionic liquid composite conditions

    Miao C.. Taiyangneng Xuebao/Acta Energiae Solaris Sinica, 42 (2), 2021. doi: 10.19912/j.0254-0096.tynxb.2018-0857
  5. Response surface optimization of biodiesel production from nyamplung (calophyllum inophyllum) oil enhanced by microwave and ionic liquid + NaOH catalyst

    Handayani P.A.. Periodica Polytechnica Chemical Engineering, 63 (3), 2019. doi: 10.3311/PPch.12965
  6. The production of ash-free coal in closed vessels with the microwave method

    Sönmez Ö.. International Journal of Coal Preparation and Utilization, 2020. doi: 10.1080/19392699.2020.1732945
  7. Co-Solvent Free Electrochemical Synthesis of Biodiesel Using Graphite Electrode and Waste Concrete Heterogeneous Catalyst: Optimization of Biodiesel Yield

    Wicaksono W.P.. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 16 (1), 2021. doi: 10.9767/bcrec.16.1.10310.179-187
  8. LPG – CNG - biofuel for land transportation fuel in indonesia: Overview, opportunities, and challenges

    Rifa’I A.. International Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering Research, 8 (7), 2020. doi: 10.30534/ijeter/2020/142872020
  9. Highly sensitive electrocatalytic determination of formaldehyde using a Ni/Ionic liquid modified carbon nanotube paste electrode

    Zarei E.. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 13 (3), 2018. doi: 10.9767/bcrec.13.3.2341.529-542
  10. Process evaluation of biodiesel production from nyamplung (Calophyllum inophyllum) oil enhanced by ionic liquid + NaOH catalyst and microwave heating system

    Handayani P.A.. Journal of Physical Science, 29 , 2018. doi: 10.21315/jps2018.29.s2.21
  11. Microwave-Assisted Esterification of Oleic Acid Using an Ionic Liquid Catalyst

    Bölük S.. Chemical Engineering and Technology, 43 (9), 2020. doi: 10.1002/ceat.202000045