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The Effect of Mesoporous H-ZSM-5 Crystallinity as a CaO Support on the Transesterification of Used Cooking Oil

1Department of Chemistry, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, Surabaya 60111, Indonesia

2Laboratory of Energy, Center for Energy Studies, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, Surabaya, Indonesia

Received: 21 Nov 2016; Revised: 8 Mar 2017; Accepted: 9 Mar 2017; Available online: 27 Oct 2017; Published: 1 Dec 2017.
Editor(s): Istadi Istadi, Yuly Kusumawati
Open Access Copyright (c) 2017 by Authors, Published by BCREC Group under http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0.

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Abstract

Transesterification of used cooking oil was carried out over calcium oxide supported on mesoporous H-ZSM-5 prepared from kaolin as solid base catalysts. Solid basic catalysts investigated in this study were characterized by XRD, FTIR spectroscopy, and N2 adsorption-desorption techniques. The XRD pattern showed peaks corresponding to the CaO and mesoporous ZSM-5 in the sample. The peak intensity of the CaO increased as CaO loading in ZSM-5 was increased. The characterization based on FTIR spectroscopy revealed that CaO/H-ZSM-5 solids have functional groups characteristics of both CaO and mesoporous H-ZSM-5 which appeared in the band at around  550 cm-1 and 480 cm-1. The isotherm of N2 adsorption-desorption of CaO/H-ZSM-5 indicated the type IV isotherm with the presence of hysteresis loop. For the catalytic activity, the biodiesel yield using catalyst of 10 % CaO/HZSM-5 (100 %), 30 % CaO/HZSM-5 (100 %), 50 % CaO/HZSM-5 (100 %) were 24.34, 27.37, and 29.73 %, respectively. It also related with the basic active site, when loading CaO increased, the basic active site also increased. 

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Keywords: CaO/H-ZSM-5; Zeolite; Mesoporous; Cooking Oil; Transesterification

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