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Sulfonated Hydrothermal Carbon-Based Catalyzed Esterification under Microwave Irradiation: Optimization and Kinetic Study

1Chemical Engineering Research Unit for Value Adding of Bioresources, Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, Phayathai Road, Bangkok 10330, Thailand

2Department of Applied Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Advanced Science and, Japan

3Technology, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8555, Japan

4 International Research Organization for Advanced Science and Technology, Kumamoto, Japan

5 University, Kumamoto 860-8555, Japan

6 The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut’s University of, Thailand

7 Technology Thonburi, Prachauthit Road, Bangmod, Bangkok 10140, Thailand

8 Chemical Engineering Program, Department of Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok 65000, Thailand

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Received: 9 Jan 2020; Revised: 12 Jun 2020; Accepted: 13 Jun 2020; Available online: 30 Jul 2020; Published: 1 Aug 2020.
Editor(s): Istadi Istadi
Open Access Copyright (c) 2020 by Authors, Published by BCREC Group under

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In this study, the esterification reaction of oleic acid (OA) with methanol was investigated in the presence of a sulfonated hydrothermal carbon-based catalyst under microwave irradiation. The reaction conditions were optimized using response surface methodology based on a central composite design. Three following variables were studied: methanol to OA molar ratios (2.5:1–7.5:1), reaction time (50–70 min) and catalyst loading (2–5 wt.%) to provide a statistical model with the coefficient of regression (R2) of 0.9407. Based on the model, the optimum OA conversion of 95.6% was predicted at 5.8:1 methanol to OA molar ratio, 60 min and 3.05 wt.% catalyst loading. The experimental validation indicated that the model gave a good prediction of OA conversion (2.8% error). Furthermore, the reaction was found to be reasonably described by the pseudo-first order kinetics. The dependency of the reaction rate constant on temperatures gave a value of the activation energy of 64 kJ/mol. Copyright © 2020 by Authors, Published by BCREC Group. This is an open access article under the CC BY-SA License (



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Keywords: Carbon-based catalyst; Esterification; Microwave irradiation; Response surface methodology; Kinetic study
Funding: e-ASIA Joint Research Program (e-ASIA JRP) , Japan Student Services Organization (JASSO) Scholarship ; Thailand Science Research and Innovation (TSRI) under contract IRN62W0001)

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