skip to main content

Synthesis of Nano-Flakes Ag•ZnO•Activated Carbon Composite from Rice Husk as A Photocatalyst under Solar Light

1School of Chemical Engineering, Hanoi University of Science and Technology, Hanoi, Viet Nam

2R&D Research Center, Kangaroo Headquarter, Viet Nam

3Hepato-Gastroenterology Department, Bach Mai Hospital, Hanoi, Viet Nam

4 Hanoi University of Industry, Viet Nam

5 Department of Biomolecular and Chemical Engineering, Yonsei University, South Korea

View all affiliations
Received: 25 Sep 2019; Revised: 2 Feb 2020; Accepted: 4 Feb 2020; Published: 1 Apr 2020; Available online: 28 Feb 2020.
Open Access Copyright (c) 2020 by Authors, Published by BCREC Group under

Citation Format:
Cover Image

This study aimed to synthesize Ag•ZnO•Activated carbon (Ag•ZnO•AC ) composite from rice husk for degradation of dyes. The deposition of Ag and ZnO on AC led to decreasing the surface area and pore volume of Ag•ZnO•AC composite. In addition, when Ag and ZnO were dispersed on activated carbon, the Ag•ZnO flakes became denser and tighter, but the particle size of Ag became smaller from 5 to 7 nm. The photocatalytic ability of Ag•ZnO•AC composite was evaluated by degradation of Janus Green B (JGB) and compared with that of AC, ZnO, Ag•ZnO, and ZnO•AC samples. The effects of catalyst dosages, pH values, and initial dye concentrations on photocatalytic degradation were investigated in detail. The Ag•ZnO•AC composite had a high degradation efficiency of 100% in 60 min, showing the reaction rate of 0.120 min-1 and degradation capacity of 17.8 mg/g within 20 min. The photocatalytic performance of the Ag•ZnO•AC composite was also evaluated by cyclic test and the degradation of other persistent dyes such as Methylene Blue, Tartrazine, Congo Red, and organic compounds (Caffeine and Bisphenol A). Based on the experimental results, the possible destruction route of JGB by the as-synthesized Ag•ZnO•AC composite was suggested. Copyright © 2020 by Authors, Published by BCREC Group. This is an open access article under the CC BY-SA License (


Fulltext View|Download
Keywords: Rice husk; Silver; Zinc oxide; Activated carbon; Photocatalyst
Funding: Vietnamese Ministry of Education and Training under contract grant number B2017-BKA-53 ; Vietnam National Foundation for Science and Technology Development (NAFOSTED) under contract 104.05-2018.333

Article Metrics:

Article Info
Section: Original Research Articles
Language : EN
  1. Thu, H.T., Dat, L.T., Tuan, V.A. (2019). Synthesis of mesoporous SiO2 from rice husk for removal of organic dyes in aqueous solution. Vietnam Journal of Chemistry, 57,175-181
  2. Ahmed, M.A., El-Katori, E.E., Gharni, Z.H. (2013). Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye using Fe2O3/TiO2 nanoparticles prepared by sol–gel method. J. Alloys Compd., 553, 19-29
  3. Akpan, U.G., Hameed, B.H. (2009). Parameters affecting the photocatalytic degradation of dyes using TiO2-based photocatalysts: A review. J. Hazard. Mater., 170, 520-529
  4. Le, M.T., Nguyen, H.L., Vu, A.-T., Nguyen, V.C., Wu, J.C.S. (2019). Synthesis of TiO2 on different substrates by chemical vapor deposition for photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI) in water. Journal of the Chinese Chemical Society, 66, 1713-1720
  5. Tu, V.A., Tuan, V.A. (2018). A facile and fast solution chemistry synthesis of porous ZnO nanoparticles for high efficiency photodegradation of tartrazine. Vietnam Journal of Chemistry, 56, 214-219
  6. Mai, L.T., Hoai, L.T., Tuan, V.A. (2018). Effects of reaction parameters on photodegradation of caffeine over hierarchical flower-like ZnO nanostructure. Vietnam Journal of Chemistry, 56, 647-653
  7. Kiwaan, H.A., Atwee, T.M., Azab, E.A., El-Bindary, A.A. (2019). Efficient photocatalytic degradation of Acid Red 57 using synthesized ZnO nanowires. Journal of the Chinese Chemical Society, 66, 89-98
  8. P. Fageria, S. Gangopadhyay, S. Pande, Synthesis of ZnO/Au and ZnO/Ag nanoparticles and their photocatalytic application using UV and visible light, RSC Advances 4 (2014) 24962-24972
  9. Sarma, B., Sarma, B.K. (2017). Fabrication of Ag/ZnO heterostructure and the role of surface coverage of ZnO microrods by Ag nanoparticles on the photophysical and photocatalytic properties of the metal-semiconductor system. Applied Surface Science, 410, 557-565
  10. Wang, L., Hou, X., Li, F., He, G., Li, L. (2015). Hybrid ZnO/Ag nanocomposites: Fabrication, characterization, and their visible-light photocatalytic activity. Mater. Lett., 161, 368-371
  11. Zhai, H., Wang, L., Sun, D., Han, D., Qi, B., Li, X., Chang, L., Yang, J. (2015). Direct sunlight responsive Ag–ZnO heterostructure photocatalyst: Enhanced degradation of rhodamine B. Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids, 78, 35-40
  12. Singhal, S., Dixit, S, Shukla, A.K. (2018). Self-assembly of the Ag deposited ZnO/carbon nanospheres: A resourceful photocatalyst for efficient photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye in water. Advanced Powder Technology, 29, 3483-3492
  13. Moradi, M., Haghighi, M., Allahyari, S. (2017). Precipitation dispersion of Ag–ZnO nanocatalyst over functionalized multiwall carbon nanotube used in degradation of Acid Orange from wastewater. Process Safety and Environmental Protection, 107, 414-427
  14. Thi, V.H.T., Cao, T.H., Pham, T.N., Pham, T.T., Le, M.C. (2019). Synergistic Adsorption and Photocatalytic Activity under Visible Irradiation Using Ag-ZnO/GO Nanoparticles Derived at Low Temperature. Journal of Chemistry, 2019, 1-13
  15. Mukwevho, N., Gusain, R., Fosso-Kankeu, E., Kumar, N., Waanders, F., Ray, S.S. (2020). Removal of naphthalene from simulated wastewater through adsorption-photodegradation by ZnO/Ag/GO nanocomposite. Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, 81, 393-404
  16. Chen, X., Wu, Z., Gao, Z., Ye, B.-C. (2017). Effect of Different Activated Carbon as Carrier on the Photocatalytic Activity of Ag-N-ZnO Photocatalyst for Methyl Orange Degradation under Visible Light Irradiation. Nanomaterials, 7, 258-275
  17. Yin, D., Le, Z., Liu, B., Wu, M. (2012). Ag/ZnO-C nanocomposite-preparation and photocatalytic properties. Journal of nanoscience and nanotechnology, 12, 2248-2253
  18. Intarasuwan, K., Amornpitoksuk, P., Suwanboon, S., Graidist, P., Maungchanburi, S., Randorn, C. (2018). Effect of Ag loading on activated carbon doped ZnO for bisphenol A degradation under visible light. Adv. Powder Technol., 29, 2608-2615
  19. Chen, H., Wang, W., Martin, J.C., Oliphant, A.J., Doerr, P.A., Xu, J.F., DeBorn, K.M., Chen, C., Sun, L. (2013). Extraction of Lignocellulose and Synthesis of Porous Silica Nanoparticles from Rice Husks: A Comprehensive Utilization of Rice Husk Biomass. ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering, 1, 254-259
  20. Korobochkin, V.V., Tu, N.V., Hieu, N.M. (2016). Production of activated carbon from rice husk Vietnam. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 43, 012066
  21. Quispe, I., Navia, R., Kahhat, R. (2017). Energy potential from rice husk through direct combustion and fast pyrolysis: A review. Waste Manage. (Oxford), 59, 200-210
  22. Shen, Y. (2017). Rice husk silica derived nanomaterials for sustainable applications. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 80, 453-466
  23. Vu, A.-T., Xuan, T.N., Lee, C.-H. (2019). Preparation of mesoporous Fe2O3·SiO2 composite from rice husk as an efficient heterogeneous Fenton-like catalyst for degradation of organic dyes. Journal of Water Process Engineering, 28, 169-180
  24. Sugashini, S., Begum, K.M.M.S. (2015). Preparation of activated carbon from carbonized rice husk by ozone activation for Cr (VI) removal. Carbon, 93, 1086-1087
  25. Menya, E., Olupot, P.W., Storz, H., Lubwama, M., Kiros, Y. (2018). Production and performance of activated carbon from rice husks for removal of natural organic matter from water: A review. Chemical Engineering Research and Design, 129, 271-296
  26. Le Van, K., Luong Thi, T.T. (2014). Activated carbon derived from rice husk by NaOH activation and its application in supercapacitor. Progress in Natural Science: Materials International, 24, 191-198
  27. Van, N.T., Tuan, V.A. (2018). Photo-degradation of Janus Green B on zince oxide nano particles loaded on activated carbon preparation from rice husk. Vietnam Journal of Chemistry, 56, 306-311
  28. Sun, F., Tan, F., Wang, W., Qiao, X., Qiu, X. (2012). Facile synthesis of Ag/ZnO heterostructure nanocrystals with enhanced photocatalytic performance. Materials Research Bulletin, 47, 3357-3361
  29. Wang, H., Liu, X., Han, S. (2016). The synthesis of a Ag–ZnO nanohybrid with plasmonic photocatalytic activity under visible-light irradiation: the relationship between tunable optical absorption, defect chemistry and photocatalytic activity. CrystEngComm, 18, 1933-1943
  30. Zou, X.-H., Zhao, S.-W., Zhang, J.-G., Sun, H.-L., Pan, Q.-J., Guo, Y.-R. (2019). Preparation of ternary ZnO/Ag/cellulose and its enhanced photocatalytic degradation property on phenol and benzene in VOCs. Open Chemistry, 17, 779–787
  31. Vu, A.-T., Park, Y., Jeon, P.R., Lee, C.-H. (2014). Mesoporous MgO sorbent promoted with KNO3 for CO2 capture at intermediate temperatures. Chem. Eng. J., 258, 254-264
  32. Park, J.H., Choppala, G., Lee, S.J., Bolan, N., Chung, J.W., Edraki, M. (2013). Comparative Sorption of Pb and Cd by Biochars and Its Implication for Metal Immobilization in Soils. Water, Air, Soil Pollut., 224, 1711
  33. Vu, A.-T., Ho, K., Lee, C.-H. (2016). Removal of gaseous sulfur and phosphorus compounds by carbon-coated porous magnesium oxide composites. Chem. Eng. J., 283, 1234-1243
  34. Bouzid, H., Faisal, M., Harraz, F.A., Al-Sayari, S.A., Ismail, A.A. (2015). Synthesis of mesoporous Ag/ZnO nanocrystals with enhanced photocatalytic activity. Catal. Today, 252, 20-26
  35. Kaur, A., Gupta, G., Ibhadon, A.O., Salunke, D.B., Sinha, A.S.K., Kansal, S.K. (2018). A Facile synthesis of silver modified ZnO nanoplates for efficient removal of ofloxacin drug in aqueous phase under solar irradiation. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, 6, 3621-3630
  36. Yang, X., Li, Y., Du, Q., Sun, J., Chen, L., Hu, S., Wang, Z., Xia, Y., Xia, L. (2015). Highly effective removal of basic fuchsin from aqueous solutions by anionic polyacrylamide/graphene oxide aerogels. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 453, 107-114
  37. Yang, C., Yu, J., Li, Q., Yu, Y. (2017). Facile synthesis of monodisperse porous ZnO nanospheres for organic pollutant degradation under simulated sunlight irradiation: The effect of operational parameters. Mater. Res. Bull., 87, 72-83
  38. El-Sayed, G.O., Yehia, M.M., Asaad, A.A. (2014). Assessment of activated carbon prepared from corncob by chemical activation with phosphoric acid. Water Resources and Industry, 7-8, 66-75
  39. Yang, J.Y.C., Li, Q., Yu, Y. (2016). Facile synthesis of monodisperse porous ZnO nanospheres for organic pollutant degradation under simulated sunlight irradiation: The effect of operational parameters. Materials Research Bulletin, 87, 72-83
  40. Behnajady, N.M.M.A., Hamzavi, R. (2006). Kinetic study on photocatalytic degradation of C.I. Acid Yellow 23 by ZnO photocatalyst. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 133, 226-232
  41. Zyoud, A.Z.B.A., Helal, M.H.S., Park, D., Campet, G., Hilal, H.S. (2015). Optimizing photo-mineralization of aqueous methyl orange by nano-ZnO catalyst under simulated natural conditions. Journal of Environmental Health Science & Engineering, 13, 46-55
  42. Abhilash, M.R., Akshatha, G., Srikantaswamy, S. (2019). Photocatalytic dye degradation and biological activities of the Fe2O3/Cu2O nanocomposite. RSC Advances, 9, 8557-8568
  43. Ghiasi, E., Malekzadeh, A. (2020). Removal of Various Textile Dyes Using LaMn(Fe)O3 and LaFeMn0.5O3 Nanoperovskites; RSM Optimization, Isotherms and Kinetics Studies. Journal of Inorganic and Organometallic Polymers and Materials, 8, 1-16
  44. Zhang, Y.Z.H., Zhang, D.B. (2007). Decolorization and mineralization of CI Reactive Black 8 by Fenton and ultrasound/Fenton method. Color. Techno., 123,101-105

Last update:

No citation recorded.

Last update: 2021-09-19 04:03:28

No citation recorded.