skip to main content

Characterization and Application of Aluminum Dross as Catalyst in Pyrolysis of Waste Cooking Oil

1Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

2Catalysis Science and Technology Research Center (Putra Cat), Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

Received: 20 Jun 2016; Revised: 28 Oct 2016; Accepted: 12 Nov 2016; Available online: 13 Feb 2017; Published: 30 Apr 2017.
Editor(s): Istadi Istadi
Open Access Copyright (c) 2017 by Authors, Published by BCREC Group under

Citation Format:
Cover Image

Aluminium dross, a waste material produced by dissolution of aluminum scrap, was characterized physically and chemically by various analysis techniques for a potential to be used as catalyst. Using catalyst from waste materials reduced the cost for synthesizing of new catalyst. An efficient catalyst derived from industrial solid waste was modified by acid washing for using in a pyrolysis of waste cooking oil. The modification of aluminum dross resulted in increased surface area (from 0.96 to 68.24 m2/g), acidity (from 315 to 748 µmol/g) and thermal stability. Pyrolysis waste cooking oil was used to test the performance of aluminum dross as catalyst before and after modification. The product analysis showed a better result than the unmodified material based on increased yield of bio-oil and improved selectivity. 

Fulltext View|Download
Keywords: Al dross; Thermal activation; Chemical activation; Pyrolysis waste cooking oil

Article Metrics:

  1. Bennet, J., Lee, A.F., Wilson, K. (2016). Catalytic Applications of Waste Derived Materials. Journal of Materials Chemistry A, 4: 3617-3637
  2. Murayama, N., Maekawa, I., Ushiro, H., Miyoshi, T., Shibata, J., Valix, M. (2012). Synthesis of Various Layered Double Hydroxides using Aluminum Dross Generated in Aluminum Recycling Process. International Journal of Mineral Processing, 110-111: 46-52
  3. David, E., Kopac, J. (2013). Aluminum Recovery as a Product with High Added Value using Aluminum Hazardous Waste. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 261: 316-324
  4. Jafari, N.H., Stark, T.D., Roper, R. (2014). Classification and Reactivity of Secondary Aluminum Production Waste. Journal of Hazardous, Toxic, and Radioactive Waste, 18: 1-11
  5. Balakrishnan, M., Batra, V.S., Hargreaves, J.S., Pulfordb, I.D. (2011). Waste Materials – Catalytic Opportunities: An Overview of the Application of Large Scale Waste Materials as Resources for Catalytic Applications. Green Chemistry, 13(1): 16-24
  6. Kim, J., Biswas, K., Jhon, K.W., Jeong, S.Y., Ahn, W.S. (2009).Synthesis of AlPO4-5 and CrAPO-5 using Aluminum Dross. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 169(1-3): 919-925
  7. Das, B.R., Dash, B., Tripathy, B.C., Bhattacharya, I.N., Das, S.C. (2007). Production of g-Alumina from Waste Aluminium Dross. Minerals Engineering, 20: 252-258
  8. Yigezu, Z.D., Muthukumar, K. (2014). Catalytic Cracking of Vegetable Oil with Metal Oxides for Biofuel Production. Energy Conversion and Management, 84: 326-333
  9. Prado, C.M.R., Filho, N.R.A. (2009). Production and Characterization of the Biofuels Obtained by Thermal Cracking and Thermal Catalytic Cracking of Vegetable Oils. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, 86(2): 338-347
  10. Karimi, E., Briens, C., Berruti, F., Moloodi, S., Tzanetakis, T., Thomson, M.J., Schlaf, M. (2010). Red Mud as a Catalyst for the Upgrading of Hemp-Seed Pyrolysis Bio-Oil. Energy and Fuels, 24(12): 6586-6600
  11. Kar, Y., Gurbuz, Z. (2016). Application of Blast Furnace Slag as a Catalyst for Catalytic Cracking of Used Frying Sunflower Oil. Energy Exploration & Exploitation, 34(2): 262-272
  12. Lu, Q., Zhang, Z.F., Dong, C.Q., Zhu, X.F. (2010). Catalytic Upgrading of Biomass Fast Pyrolysis Vapors with Nano Metal Oxides: An Analytical Py-GC/MS Study. Energies, 3(11): 1805-1820
  13. Romero, M.J.A., Pizzi, A., Toscano, G., Bosio, B., Arato, E. (2014). Study of an Innovative Process for the Production of Biofuels using Non-Edible Vegetable Oils. Chemical Engineering Transactions, 37(2013): 883-888
  14. Tsakiridis, P.E., Oustadakis, P., Agatzini-Leonardou, S. (2013). Aluminium Recovery during Black Dross Hydrothermal Treatment. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, 1(1-2): 23-32
  15. Hwang, J.Y., Huang, X., Xu, Z. (2006). Recovery of Metals from Aluminum Dross and Saltcake. Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering, 5(1): 47-62
  16. Miskufova, A., Petranikova, M., Kovacs, M., Briancin, J., Havlik, T., Orac, D. (2009). Leaching of Aluminium Dross in Alkaline Solution. In Proceedings of the European Metallurgical Conference, 24: 1-11. Innbruck, Austria: European Metallurgical Conference EMC2009
  17. Maher, K.D., Bressler, D.C. (2007). Pyrolysis of Triglyceride Materials for the Production of Renewable Fuels and Chemicals. Bioresoures Technolology, 98(12): 2351-2368
  18. Putun, A.E., Ozean, A., Putun, E. (1999). Pyrolysis of Hazelnut Shells in a Fixed-Bed Tubular Reactor: Yields and Structural Analysis of Bio-Oil. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, 52(1): 33-49
  19. Tanneru, S.K., Steele, P.H. (2015). Production of Liquid Hydrocarbons from Pretreated Bio-Oil via Catalytic Deoxygenation with Syngas. Renewable Energy, 80: 251-258
  20. Asikin-Mijan, N., Taufiq-Yap, Y.H., Lee, H.V. (2015). Synthesis of Clamshell Derived Ca(OH)2 Nano-Particles via Simple Surfactant-Hydration Treatment. Chemical Engineering Journal, 262: 1043-1051
  21. Vonghia, E., Boocock, D.G.B., Konar, S.K., Leung, A. (1995). Pathways for the Deoxygenation of Triglycerides to Aliphatic Hydrocarbons over Activated Alumina. Energy and Fuels, 9(7): 1090-1096
  22. Demirbas, A. (2009). Gasoline-Rich Liquid from Sunflower Oil by Catalytic Pyrolysis with Alumina-Treated Sodium Hydroxide. Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization, and Environmental Effeccts, 31(8): 671-678

Last update:

No citation recorded.

Last update: 2021-11-30 06:36:36

  1. Gas quantity and composition from the hydrolysis of salt cake from secondary aluminum processing

    Huang X.. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 16 (4), 2019. doi: 10.1007/s13762-018-1820-x
  2. Free-H2 deoxygenation of palm oil into green diesel-grade biofuel over fish scale derived hydroxyapatite catalyst

    Mezaal F.W.. Journal of Green Engineering, 10 (2), 2020.
  3. Characterization and application of molten slag as catalyst in pyrolysis of waste cooking oil

    Kamil F.H.. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 15 (1), 2020. doi: 10.9767/bcrec.15.1.3973.119-127
  4. Green Biofuel Production via Catalytic Pyrolysis of Waste Cooking Oil using Malaysian Dolomite Catalyst

    Hafriz R.. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 13 (3), 2018. doi: 10.9767/bcrec.13.3.1956.489-501
  5. Pretreated aluminium dross waste as a source of inexpensive alumina-spinel composite ceramic hollow fibre membrane for pretreatment of oily saline produced water

    Aziz M.H.A.. Ceramics International, 45 (2), 2019. doi: 10.1016/j.ceramint.2018.10.110
  6. Hazardous aluminum dross characterization and recycling strategies: A critical review

    Mahinroosta M.. Journal of Environmental Management, 127 , 2018. doi: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2018.06.068