skip to main content

Application of Tin(II) Chloride Catalyst for High FFA Jatropha Oil Esterification in Continuous Reactive Distillation Column

1Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Semarang State University, Kampus Unnes Sekaran, Semarang 50229, Indonesia

2Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Diponegoro University, Jl. Prof. H. Soedarto, SH, Tembalang, Semarang 50275, Indonesia

3Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Gadjah Mada University, Jl Grafika 2 Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia

Received: 10 Nov 2015; Revised: 4 Feb 2016; Accepted: 4 Feb 2016; Available online: 10 Mar 2016; Published: 1 Apr 2016.
Editor(s): BCREC JM
Open Access Copyright (c) 2016 by Authors, Published by BCREC Group under

Citation Format:
Cover Image

The application of heterogeneous solid acid catalysts in biodiesel production has become popular and gained significant attention over the last few years. It is since these types of catalysts hold the benefits in terms of easy separation from the product, reusability of the catalyst, high selectivity of the reaction. They are also considered sustainable and powerful particularly in organic synthesis. This work studied the use of tin(II) chloride as solid Lewis acid catalyst to promote the esterification reaction of high Free Fatty Acid (FFA) jatropha oil in continuous reactive distillation column. To obtain the optimum condition, the influences of reaction time, molar ratio of the reactant, and catalyst were investigated. It was revealed that the optimum condition was achieved at the molar ratio of methanol to FFA at 1:60, catalyst concentration of 5%, and reaction temperature of 60°C with the reaction conversion of 90%. This result was significantly superior to the identical reaction performed using batch reactor. The esterification of high FFA jatropha oil using reactive distillation in the presence of tin(II) chloride provided higher conversion than that of Amberlyst-15 heterogeneous catalyst and was comparable to that of homogenous sulfuric acid catalyst, which showed 30 and 94.71% conversion, respectively. The esterification reaction of high FFA jatropha oil was subsequently followed by transesterification reaction for the completion of the biodiesel production. Transesterification was carried out at 60 °C, molar ratio of methanol to oil of 1:6, NaOH catalyst of 1%, and reaction time of one hour. The jatropha biodiesel product resulted from this two steps process could satisfy the ASTM and Indonesian biodiesel standard in terms of ester content (97.79 %), density, and viscosity. 

Fulltext View|Download
Keywords: Tin(II) Chloride; esterification; jatropha oil; biodiesel; reactive distillation

Article Metrics:

  1. Alhassan, F.H., Yunus, R., Rashid, U., Sirat, K., Islam, A., Lee, H.V., Taufiq-Yap, Y.H. (2013). Production of Biodiesel from Mixed Vegetable Oils Using Ferric Hydrogen Sulphate as An Effective Reusable Heterogeneous Solid Acid Catalyst. Appl. Catal. A: General, 456: 182-187
  2. Neumann, K., Werth, K., Martín, A., Górak, A. (2015). Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oils through Esterification: Catalyst Screening, Chemical Equilibrium and Reaction Kinetics. Chem. Eng. Res. Dev., xxx: xxx-xxx. (in press)
  3. Kostić, M.D., Veličković, A.V., Joković, N.M., Stamenković, O.S., Veljković, V.B. (2016). Optimization and Kinetic Modeling of Esterification of the Oil Obtained from Waste Plum Stones as A Pretreatment Step in Biodiesel Production. Waste Management, 48: 619-629
  4. Banchero, M., Kusumaningtyas, R.D., Gozzelino. G. (2014). Reactive Distillation in the Intensification of Oleic Acid Esterification with Methanol – A Simulation Case-Study. Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, 20(6): 4242-4249
  5. Da Silva, M.J. Cardoso, A.L., Natalino, R. (2010). Bioenergy II: Tin Catalysed Esterification of Free Fatty Acids. International Journal of Chemical Reactor Engineering, 8
  6. Sharma, Y.C., Singh, B., (2011). Advancements in Solid Acid Catalysts for Ecofriendly and Economically Viable Synthesis of Biodiesel. Biofuels, Bioprod. Bioref.: 5: 69-92
  7. Casas, A., Ramos, M.J., Rodríguez, J.F., Pérez, A. (2013). Tin Compounds as Lewis Acid Catalysts for Esterification and Transesterification of Acid Vegetable Oils. Fuel Processing Technology, 106: 321-325
  8. Kozhevnikov, I.V. (1998). Catalysis by Heteropoly Acids and Multicomponent Polyoxometalates in Liquid-Phase Reactions. Chem. Rev. 98: 98-171
  9. Khire, H., Bhagwat, P.V., Fernandes, M., Gangundi, P.B., Vadalia, H. (2012). Esterification of Lower Aliphatic Alcohols with Acetic Acid in Presence of Different Acid Catalysts. Indian Journal of Chemical Technology, 19, 342-350
  10. Kusumaningtyas, R.D., Handayani, P.A., Rochmadi, Purwono, S., Budiman, A. (2014). Tin(II) Chloride Catalyzed Esterification of High FFA Jatropha Oil: Experimental and Kinetics Study. International Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 3(2): 75-81
  11. Banchero, M., Gozzelino, G. (2015). Nb2O5-Catalyzed Kinetics of Fatty Acids Esterification for Reactive Distillation Process Simulation. Chem. Eng. Res. Dev., 100: 292-301
  12. Kusumaningtyas, R.D., Purwono, S., Rochmadi, Budiman, A. 2014. Graphical Exergy Analysis of Reactive Distillation Column for Biodiesel Production. Int. J. Exergy, 15(4): 447-467
  13. Sanchez-Arreola, E., Martin-Torres, G., Lozada-Ramírez, J.D., Hernandez, L.R., Bandala-Gonzales, E.R., Bach, H. (2015). Biodiesel Production and De-Oiled Seed Cake Nutritional Values of A Mexican Edible Jatropha Curcas. Renewable Energy, 76: 143-147
  14. Praptijanto, A., Agustian, E., Putrasari, Y., Sebayang, D., Rus, A.Z.M., Hasan, S., and Untoro, P. (2015). Sonochemistry Approach to Reducing Biodiesel Reaction Time from Jatropha Curcas Oil by Clamp on Tubular Reactor, Energy Procedia, 68: 480-489
  15. Cardoso, A.L., Neves, S.C.G., da Silva, M.J. (2009). Kinetic Study of Alcoholysis of the Fatty Acids Catalyzed by Tin Chloride (II): An Alternative Catalyst for Biodiesel Production. Energy and Fuels, 23(3): 1718-1722
  16. Boon-anuwat, N., Kiatkittipong, W., Aiouache, F., Assabumrungra, S. (2015). Process Design of Continuous Biodiesel Production by Reactive Distillation: Comparison Between Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Catalysts. Chemical Engineering and Processing: Process Intensification, 92: 33-44
  17. Srilatha, K., Lingaiah, N., Devi, B.L.A.P., Prasad, R.B.N., Venkateswar, S., Prasad, P.S.S. (2009). Esterification of Free Fatty Acids for Biodiesel Production over Heteropoly Tungstate Supported on Niobia Catalysts. Applied Catalysis A: General, 365(1): 28-33
  18. Yadav, G.D., Yadav, A.R. (2012). Insight into Esterification of Eugenol to Eugenol Benzoate Using A Solid Super Acidic Modified Zirconia Catalyst UDCaT-5. Chemical Engineering Journal, 192: 146-155
  19. Ferreira, A.B., Cardoso, A.L., da Silva, M.C. (2012). Tin-Catalyzed Esterification and Transesterification Reactions: A Review. ISRN Renewable Energy, 142857: 1-13
  20. Freedman, B., Pryde, E.H., Mounts, T.L. (1984). Variables Affecting the Yields of Fatty Esters from Transesterified Vegetable Oils. JAOCS, 61(10): 1638-1643
  21. Dimian, A.C., Bildea, C.S., Omota, F., Kiss. A.A. (2009). Innovative Process for Fatty Acid Esters by Dual Reactive Distillation. Comput. Chem. Eng., 33(3): 743-750
  22. Gómez-Castro, F.I., Rico-Ramírez, V., Segovia-Hernández, J.G., Hernández-Castro. S. (2011). Esterification of Fatty Acids in A Thermally Coupled Reactive Distillation Column by the Two Step Supercritical Methanol Method. Chem. Eng. Res. Des., 89: 480-490
  23. Taylor, R., Krishna, R. (2000). Modelling Reactive Distillation. Chem. Eng. Sci., 55: 5183-5229
  24. Kusmiyati, K, Sugiharto, A. (2010). Production of Biodiesel from Oleic Acid and Methanol by Reactive Distillation. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 5(1): 1-6

Last update:

No citation recorded.

Last update:

No citation recorded.