Application of Tin(II) Chloride Catalyst for High FFA Jatropha Oil Esterification in Continuous Reactive Distillation Column

DOI: https://doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.11.1.417.66-74
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Submitted: 27-02-2016
Published: 10-03-2016
Section: The 2nd International Conference on Chemical and Material Engineering 2015
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The application of heterogeneous solid acid catalysts in biodiesel production has become popular and gained significant attention over the last few years. It is since these types of catalysts hold the benefits in terms of easy separation from the product, reusability of the catalyst, high selectivity of the reaction. They are also considered sustainable and powerful particularly in organic synthesis. This work studied the use of tin(II) chloride as solid Lewis acid catalyst to promote the esterification reaction of high Free Fatty Acid (FFA) jatropha oil in continuous reactive distillation column. To obtain the optimum condition, the influences of reaction time, molar ratio of the reactant, and catalyst were investigated. It was revealed that the optimum condition was achieved at the molar ratio of methanol to FFA at 1:60, catalyst concentration of 5%, and reaction temperature of 60°C with the reaction conversion of 90%. This result was significantly superior to the identical reaction performed using batch reactor. The esterification of high FFA jatropha oil using reactive distillation in the presence of tin(II) chloride provided higher conversion than that of Amberlyst-15 heterogeneous catalyst and was comparable to that of homogenous sulfuric acid catalyst, which showed 30 and 94.71% conversion, respectively. The esterification reaction of high FFA jatropha oil was subsequently followed by transesterification reaction for the completion of the biodiesel production. Transesterification was carried out at 60 °C, molar ratio of methanol to oil of 1:6, NaOH catalyst of 1%, and reaction time of one hour. The jatropha biodiesel product resulted from this two steps process could satisfy the ASTM and Indonesian biodiesel standard in terms of ester content (97.79 %), density, and viscosity. Copyright © 2016 BCREC GROUP. All rights reserved

Received: 10th November 2015; Revised: 4th February 2016; Accepted: 4th February 2016

How to Cite: Kusumaningtyas, R.D., Aji, I.N., Hadiyanto, H., Budiman, A. (2016). Application of Tin(II) Chloride Catalyst for High FFA Jatropha Oil Esterification in Continuous Reactive Distillation Column. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 11 (1): 66-74. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.11.1.417.66-74)

Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.11.1.417.66-74

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Keywords

Tin(II) Chloride; esterification; jatropha oil; biodiesel; reactive distillation

  1. Ratna Dewi Kusumaningtyas 
    Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Semarang State University, Kampus Unnes Sekaran, Semarang 50229,, Indonesia
  2. Imam Novrizal Aji 
    Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Semarang State University, Kampus Unnes Sekaran, Semarang 50229,, Indonesia
  3. Hadiyanto Hadiyanto 
    Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Diponegoro University, Jl. Prof. H. Soedarto, SH, Tembalang, Semarang 50275, Indonesia
  4. Arief Budiman 
    3Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Gadjah Mada University, Jl Grafika 2 Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
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