Characterization and Application of Molten Slag as Catalyst in Pyrolysis of Waste Cooking Oil

Faten Hameed Kamil  -  Chemical and Petrochemical Research Center, Corporation of Research and Industrial Development, Iraq
Salmiaton Ali  -  Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia
Raja Mohamad Hafriz Raja Shahruzzaman  -  Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia
Intesar Razaq Hussien  -  State of Commission for Dams and Reservoirs, Iraq
*Rozita Omer  -  Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia
Received: 21 Dec 2018; Revised: 24 Oct 2019; Accepted: 26 Oct 2019; Published: 1 Apr 2020; Available online: 28 Feb 2020.
Open Access Copyright (c) 2020 Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis
License URL: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0

Citation Format:
Cover Image
Abstract

Chemical and physical analysis was performed to identify the molten slag composition and its ability to be used as alternative catalyst in pyrolysis of waste cooking oil. The implementation such type of catalytic material could be useful in reducing the process cost. To increase the efficiency (increase the active site) of molten slag, it was modified by acid washing that resulted in an increase in the acidity from 159 to 1224 µmol/g. The results showed that the yield of bio-fuel was increased and the product selective to n-C15 upon the modification of molten slag by acid treatment. Copyright © 2020 BCREC Group. All rights reserved

 

Keywords: Molten slag; Thermal activation; chemical activation; Pyrolysis; bio-fuel

Article Metrics:

  1. Bennett, J., Wilson, K., Lee, A.F. (2016). Catalytic applications of waste derived materials. J. Mater. Chem. A, 4, 3617–3637.
  2. Navarro, C., Mario, D., Villa-garc, I.A.A. (2010). Physico-Chemical Characterization of Steel Slag . Study of its Behavior under Simulated Environmental Conditions. Environ. Science Technology, 44, 5383–5388.
  3. Kuwahara Y., Yamashita, H. (2013). A new catalytic opportunity for waste materials: Application of waste slag based catalyst in CO2 fixation reaction. J. CO2 Util., 1, 50–59.
  4. Piatak, N.M., Parsons, M.B., Seal, R.R. (2014). Characteristics and Environmental Aspects of Slag: A Review. Appl. Geochemistry, 57, 236–266.
  5. Shen, H., Forssberg, E. (2003). An overview of recovery of metals from slags. Waste Manag., 23, 933–949.
  6. Kuwahara, Y., Tsuji, K., Ohmichi, T., Kamegawa, T., Mori, K., Yamashita, H. (2012). Transesterifications using a hydrocalumite synthesized from waste slag: an economical and ecological route for biofuel production. Catal. Sci. Technol., 2, 1842-1851.
  7. Bermudez, J.M., Fidalgo, B., Arenillas, A., Menendez, J.A. (2012). Mixtures of steel-making slag and carbons as catalyst for microwave-assisted dry reforming of CH4. Cuihua Xuebao/Chinese J. Catal., 33, 1115–1118.
  8. Wang, L., Li, H., Xin, S., Li, F. (2014). Generation of solid base catalyst from waste slag for the efficient synthesis of diethyl carbonate from ethyl carbamate and ethanol. Catal. Commun., 50, 49–53.
  9. Kar, Y., Gurbuz, Z. (2016). Application of blast furnace slag as a catalyst for catalytic cracking of used frying sunflower oil. Energy Explor. Exploit., 34, 262–272.
  10. Demirbas, A. (2008). Biofuels sources, biofuel policy, biofuel economy and global biofuel projections Energy Convers. Manag., 49, 2106–2116.
  11. Kamil, F.H., Salmiaton, A., Hafriz, R.M., Omer, R. (2017). Characterization and Application of Aluminum Dross as Catalyst in Pyrolysis of Waste Cooking Oil. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 12, 81–88.
  12. Klose, F., Scholz, P., Kreisel, G., Ondruschka, B., Kneise, R., Knopf, U. (2000). Catalysts from waste materials. Appl. Catal. B Environ., 28, 209–221.
  13. Tan, S., Zhang, Z., Sun, J., Wang, Q. (2013). Recent progress of catalytic pyrolysis of biomass by HZSM-5. Chinese J. Catal., 34, 641–650.
  14. Lu, Q., Zhang, Z.F., Dong, C.Q., Zhu, X.F. (2010). Catalytic upgrading of biomass fast pyrolysis vapors with nano metal oxides: An analytical Py-GC/MS study. Energies, 3, 1805–1820.
  15. Romero, M.J.A., Pizzi, A., Toscano, G., Bosio, B., Arato, E. (2014). Study of an innovative process for the production of biofuels using non-edible vegetable oils. Chem. Eng. Trans., 37, 883–888.
  16. Hocheng, H., Su, C., Jadhav, U.U. (2014). Bioleaching of metals from steel slag by Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans culture supernatant. Chemosphere, 117, 652–657.
  17. Yildirim, I.Z., Prezzi, M. (2011). Chemical, mineralogical, and morphological properties of steel slag. Adv. Civil Eng., 2011, 1–13.
  18. Rouquerol, F., Rouquerol, J., Sing, K.S., Llewellyn, P., Maurin, G. (2014). Adsorption by Powders and Porous Solid Principles, Methodology and Application., 2nd edition. Elsevier.
  19. Maher, K.D., Bressler, D.C. (2007). Pyrolysis of triglyceride materials for the production of renewable fuels and chemicals. Bioresour. Technol., 98, 2351–2368.
  20. Asikin-Mijan, N., Taufiq-Yap, Y.H., Lee, H. V. (2015). Synthesis of clamshell derived Ca(OH)2 nano-particles via simple surfactant-hydration treatment. Chem. Eng. J., 262, 1043–1051.
  21. Putun, A.E., Ozean, A., Putun, E. (1999). Pyrolysis of hazelnut shells in a fixed-bed tubular reactor: Yields and structural analysis of bio-oil. J. Anal. Appl. Pyrolysis, 52, 33–49.
  22. Tanneru, S.K., Steele, P.H. (2015). Production of liquid hydrocarbons from pretreated bio-oil via catalytic deoxygenation with syngas. Renew. Energy, 80, 251–258.
  23. Hafriz, R.M., Salmiaton, A., Yunus, R., Taufiq-Yap, Y.H. (2018). Modified local carbonate mineral as deoxygenated catalyst for biofuel production via catalytic pyrolysis of waste cooking oil. In AIP Conference Proceedings. 020006. AIP publishing.
  24. Junming, X., Jianchun, J., Yunjuan, S., Jie, C. (2010). Production of hydrocarbon fuels from pyrolysis of soybean oils using a basic catalyst. Bioresour. Technol., 101, 9803–9806.
  25. Hafriz, R.M., Salmiaton, A., Yunus, R., Taufiq-Yap, Y.H. (2018). Green Biofuel Production via Catalytic Pyrolysis of Waste Cooking Oil using Malaysian Dolomite Catalyst. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 13, 489-501.
  26. Taufiqurrahmi, N., Mohamed, A.R, Bhatia, S. (2011). Production of biofuel from waste cooking palm oil using nanocrystalline zeolite as catalyst : Process optimization studies. Bioresour. Technol., 102, 10686–10694.
  27. Hermida, L., Zuhairi, A., Rahman, A. (2015). Deoxygenation of fatty acid to produce diesel-like hydrocarbons : A review of process conditions , reaction kinetics and mechanism. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., 42, 1223–1233.

No citation recorded.