Synthesis of KCC-1 Using Rice Husk Ash for Pb Removal from Aqueous Solution and Petrochemical Wastewater
Copyright (c) 2019 Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Article Metrics: (Click on the Metric tab below to see the detail)
A silica-rich rice husk ash (RHA, 95.44% SiO2) was used as a silica precursor in the synthesis of KCC-1 for Pb(II) removal. The extraction of silica was carried out under several extraction methods (alkali fusion (AF), reflux (RF) and microwave heating (MW)) and extraction parameters (NaOH/RHA mass ratio, fusion temperature and H2O/NaOH-fused RHA mass ratio). The highest silica content was obtained using AF method at extraction conditions of NaOH/RHA mass ratio = 2, fusion temperature = 550 ºC, and H2O/NaOH-fused RHA mass ratio = 4, with silica concentration of 85,490 ppm. TEM, FTIR, and BET analyses revealed the synthesized KCC-1 has fibrous morphology with surface area of 220 m2/g. The synthesized KCC-1 showed good performance in removal of Pb(II) from aqueous solution (74%) and petrochemical wastewater (70%). The analyses of petrochemical wastewater revealed that the adsorption process using synthesized KCC-1 effectively decreased the concentration of COD (489 mg/L to 106 mg/L), BOD (56 mg/L to 34 mg/L) and Pb(II) (22.8 mg/L to 6.71 mg/L). This study affirmed that KCC-1 was successfully synthesized using RHA as silica precursor and applied as an efficient adsorbent for Pb(II) removal. Copyright © 2019 BCREC Group. All rights reserved
Received: 15th November 2018; Revised: 1st January 2019; Accepted: 7th January 2019; Available online: 25th January 2019; Published regularly: April 2019
How to Cite: Hasan, R., Chong, C.C., Setiabudi, H.D. (2019). Synthesis of KCC-1 Using Rice Husk Ash for Pb Removal from Aqueous Solution and Petrochemical Wastewater. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 14 (1): 193-201 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.14.1.3619.193-201)
- Brooks, R.M., Bahadory, M., Tovia, F., Rostami, H. (2010). Removal of lead from contaminated water. International Journal of Soil, Sediment and Water, 3(2): 1-14.
- Babel, S., Kurniawan, T.A. (2003). Low-cost adsorbents for heavy metals uptake from contaminated water: a review. Journal of Hazardous Material, 97(1-3): 219–243.
- Kavak, D. (2013). Removal of lead from aqueous solutions by precipitation: Statistical analysis and modeling. Desalination and Water Treatment, 51(7-9):1720–1726.
- Al-Enezi, G., Hamoda, M.F., Fawzi, N. (2004). Ion Exchange Extraction of Heavy Metals from Wastewater Sludges. Journal of Environmental Science and Health - Part A, 39(2): 455–464..
- Johnson, P.D., Girinathannair, P., Ohlinger, K.N., Ritchie, S., Teuber, L., Kirby, J. (1999). Enhanced Removal of Heavy Metals in Primary Treatment Using Coagulation and Flocculation, Water environment research, 80(5): 80-85.
- Yabe, M.J.S., de Oliveira E. (2003). Heavy metals removal in industrial effluents by sequential adsorbent treatment. Advance Environmental Resources, 7(2): 263–272.
- Hadioui, M., Sharrock, P., Mecherri, M.O., Brumas, V., Fiallo, M. (2008). Reaction of lead ions with hydroxylapatite granules. Chemical Paper, 62(5): 516–521.
- Von Lindern, I.V., Spalinger, S., Petroysan, V., Von Braun, M. (2003). Assessing remedial effectiveness through the blood lead:soil/dust lead relationship at the Bunker Hill Superfund Site in the Silver Valley of Idaho. Science of the Total Environment, 303(1-2): 139–170.
- Leighton, J., Klitzman, S., Sedlar, S., Matte T., Cohen, N.L. (2003). The effect of lead-based paint hazard remediation on blood lead levels of lead poisoned children in New York City. Environmental Resources, 92(3): 182–190.
- Eccles, H. (1999). Treatment of metal-contaminated wastes: Why select a biological process?. Trends Biotechnology, 17(12): 462–465.
- Fu, F., Wang, Q. (2011). Removal of heavy metal ions from wastewaters: A review. Journal of Environmental Management, 92(3): 407–418.
- Walcarius, A., Etienne, M., Sayen, S., Lebeau, B. (2003).Grafted silicas in electroanalysis: Amorphous versus ordered mesoporous materials. Electroanalysis: An International Journal Devoted to Fundamental and Practical Aspects of Electroanalysis, 15(5‐6): 414–421.
- Le X., Dong Z., X. Li, Zhang W., Le M., Ma J. (2015). Fibrous nano-silica supported palladium nanoparticles: An efficient catalyst for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol and hydrodechlorination of 4-chlorophenol under mild conditions. Catalysis Communication, 59: 21–25.
- Dong, Z., Le, X., Li, X., Zhang, W., Dong, C., Ma, J. (2014). Silver nanoparticles immobilized on fibrous nano-silica as highly efficient and recyclable heterogeneous catalyst for reduction of 4-nitrophenol and 2-nitroaniline. Applied Catalystic B: Environmental, 158: 129–135.
- Hamid, M.Y.S., Firmansyah, M.L., Triwahyono, S., Jalil, A.A., Mukti, R.R., Febriyanti, E., Suendo, V., Setiabudi, H.D., Mohamed, M., Nabgan, W. (2017). Oxygen vacancy-rich mesoporous silica KCC-1 for CO2 methanation. Applied Catalysis A: General, 532: 86–94
- Ahmaruzzaman, M., Gupta, V.K. (2011). Rice Husk and Its Ash as Low-Cost Adsorbents in Water and Wastewater Treatment. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, 50(24): 13589–13613.
- Yilmaz, M.S., Piskin, S. (2015). The removal of template from SBA-15 samples synthesized from different silica sources, Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, 121(3): 1255-1262.
- Nayak, J.P., Bera, J. (2011). Preparation of an efficient humidity indicating silica gel from rice husk ash. Bulletin of Materials Science, 34(7): 1683–1687.
- Kumchompoo, J., Wongwai, W., Puntharod, R. (2017). Microwave-Assisted Preparation of Sodium Silicate as Biodiesel Catalyst from Rice Husk Ash. Key Engineering Material, 751: 461–466.
- Pereira, S.A.P., Costa, S.P.F., Cunha, E., Passos, M. L.C., Araújo, A.R.S.T., Saraiva, M.L.M.F.S. (2018). Manual or automated measuring of antipsychotics’ chemical oxygen demand, Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 152: 55–60.
- Matori, K., Haslinawati, M.M., Wahab, Z.A., Ban, T.K. (2009). Producing Amorphous White Silica from Rice Husk. Journal of Basic Applied Science, 1(3): 512–515.
- Bakar, R.A., Yahya, R., Gan, S.N. (2016). Production of High Purity Amorphous Silica from Rice Husk. Procedia Chemistry, 19: 189–195.
- Shoppert, A.A., Loginova, I.V., Chaikin, L.I., Rogozhnikov, D.A. (2017). Alkali Fusion-Leaching Method For Comprehensive Processing Of Fly Ash. KnE Material Science, 2(2): 89-96.
- Sousa, A.M. de Visconte, L., Mansur, C., Furtado, C. (2009). Silica sol obtained from rice husk ash. Chemistry and Chemical Technology, 1–6.
- Keawthun, M., Krachodnok, S., Chaisena, A. (2014). Conversion of waste glasses into sodium silicate solutions. International Journal of Chemical Science, 12(1): 83–91.
- da Silva, R.J.F, Dutra, A.J.B., Afonso, J.C. (2012). Hydrometallurgy Alkali fusion followed by a two-step leaching of a Brazilian zircon concentrate. Hydrometallurgy, 117, 93–100.
- Shelke, V.R., Bhagade, S.S., Mandavgane, S.A. (2010). Mesoporous Silica from Rice Husk Ash. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engi-Neering & Catalysis, 5(2): 63–67.
- Ouyang, M., Wang, Y., Zhang, J., Zhao, Y., Wang, S., Ma, X. (2016). Three dimensional Ag/KCC-1 catalyst with a hierarchical fibrous framework for the hydrogenation of dimethyl oxalate. RSC Advances, 6(16): 12788–12791.
- Polshettiwar, V., Cha, D., Zhang, X., Basset, J.M. (2010). High-surface-area silica nanospheres (KCC-1) with a fibrous morphology. Angewandte, 49(50): 9652–9656.
- Wang, J., Fang, L., Cheng, F., Duan, X., Chen, R. (2013). Hydrothermal Synthesis of SBA-15 Using Sodium Silicate Derived from Coal Gangue. Journal of Nanomaterials, 1–6.
- Ekka, B., Rout, L., Kumar, M.K.S.A., Patel, R.K., Dash, P. (2015). Removal efficiency of Pb(II) from aqueous solution by 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ionic liquid mediated mesoporous silica. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, 3(2): 1356–1364.
- Dong, Z., Le, X., Dong, C., Zhang, W., Li, X., Ma, J. (2015). Ni@Pd core-shell nanoparticles modified fibrous silica nanospheres as highly efficient and recoverable catalyst for reduction of 4-nitrophenol and hydrodechlorination of 4-chlorophenol. Applied Catalystic B: Environmental, 162: 372–380.
- Gang, T.A.N., Yongjie, X.U.E., Jun, C.A.I. (2015). Isotherm study on adsorption removal of Pb ( II ) by MCM-41 zeolite synthesized from biomass ash. Atlantis Press, (Iccset 2014), 91–96.
- Salman, T., Temel, F.A., Turan, N.G., Ardali, Y. (2015). Adsorption of lead (II) ions onto diatomite from aqueous solutions: Mechanism, isotherm and kinetic studies. Global NEST Journal, 18(1): 1–10.
- Wu, X., Chen, Z., Luo, L., Li, L., Liu, Y. (2016). Adsorption of Lead with Silica Gel Modified with Polyamidoamine Dendrimer and Thiomalic Acid. MATEC Web of Conferences, 67: 06099.
- Kavitha, K.K.R. (2015). Convenient Synthesis of Micron-sized Macro Porous Polymers with Silica on their Surfaces and Excellent Adsorp-tion Performance for Pb(II) Ion. Journal of Environmental & Analytical Toxicology, 05(04), 1-7.
- Košak, A., Lobnik, A., Bauman, M. (2015). Adsorption of mercury(II), lead(II), cadmium(II) and zinc(II) from aqueous solutions using mercapto-modified silica particles. International Journal of Applied Ceramic Technology, 12(2): 461–472.
- Jamhour, R.M.A.Q., Ababneh, T.S., Al-rawashdeh, A.I. (2016). Adsorption Isotherms and Kinetics of Ni (II) and Pb (II) Ions on New Layered Double Hydroxides-Nitrilotriacetate Composite in Aqueous Media. Advances in Analytical Chemistry, 6(1): 17–33.
- Vijayalakshmi, K., Devi, B.M., Latha, S., Gomathi, T., Sudha, P.N., Venkatesan, J., Anil, S. (2017). Batch adsorption and desorption studies on the removal of lead (II) from aqueous solution using nanochitosan/sodium alginate/microcrystalline cellulose beads. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 104: 1483–1494.
- Abdul-Raheim, A.-R.M., Shimaa, E.-S.M., F.R.K, Manar, A.-R.E. (2016). Low Cost Biosorbents Based On Modified Starch Iron Oxide Nanocomposites For Selective Removal Of Some Heavy Metals From Aqueous Solutions. Advance Material Letter, 7(5): 402–409.
- Luo, S., Lu, T., Peng, L., Shao, J., Zeng, Q., Gu, J.D. (2014). Synthesis of nanoscale zero-valent iron immobilized in alginate microcapsules for removal of Pb(II) from aqueous solution. Journal of Material Chemistry A, 2(37): 15463–15472.
- Dolphen, R., Thiravetyan, P. (2011). Adsorption of melanoidins by chitin nanofibers. Chemical Engineering Journal, 166(3): 890–895.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Authors and readers can copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format, as well as remix, transform, and build upon the material for any purpose, even commercially, but they must give appropriate credit (cite to the article or content), provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. If you remix, transform, or build upon the material, you must distribute your contributions under the same license as the original.
Copyright Transfer Agreement
The Authors submitting a manuscript do so on the understanding that if accepted for publication, copyright of the article shall be assigned to Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis journal and Department of Chemical Engineering Diponegoro University as publisher of the journal.
Copyright encompasses exclusive rights to reproduce and deliver the article in all form and media, including reprints, photographs, microfilms and any other similar reproductions, as well as translations. The reproduction of any part of this journal, its storage in databases and its transmission by any form or media, such as electronic, electrostatic and mechanical copies, photocopies, recordings, magnetic media, etc., will be allowed only with a written permission from Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis journal and Department of Chemical Engineering Diponegoro University.
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis journal and Department of Chemical Engineering Diponegoro University, the Editors and the Advisory International Editorial Board make every effort to ensure that no wrong or misleading data, opinions or statements be published in the journal. In any way, the contents of the articles and advertisements published in the Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis are sole and exclusive responsibility of their respective authors and advertisers.
The Copyright Transfer Form can be downloaded here: [Copyright Transfer Form BCREC 2016]
The copyright form should be signed originally and send to the Editorial Office in the form of original mail, scanned document or fax :
Prof. Dr. I. Istadi (Editor-in-Chief)
Editorial Office of Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis
Department of Chemical Engineering, Diponegoro University
Jl. Prof. Soedarto, Kampus Undip Tembalang, Semarang, Central Java, Indonesia 50275
Telp.: +62-24-7460058, Fax.: +62-24-76480675