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Synthesis of KCC-1 Using Rice Husk Ash for Pb Removal from Aqueous Solution and Petrochemical Wastewater

1Faculty of Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, 26300 Gambang, Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia

2Centre of Excellence for Advanced Research in Fluid Flow, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, 26300 Gambang, Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia

Received: 15 Nov 2018; Revised: 1 Jan 2019; Accepted: 7 Jan 2019; Available online: 25 Jan 2019; Published: 15 Apr 2019.
Editor(s): Asmida Ideris, Istadi Istadi
Open Access Copyright (c) 2019 by Authors, Published by BCREC Group under

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A silica-rich rice husk ash (RHA, 95.44% SiO2) was used as a silica precursor in the synthesis of KCC-1 for Pb(II) removal. The extraction of silica was carried out under several extraction methods (alkali fusion (AF), reflux (RF) and microwave heating (MW)) and extraction parameters (NaOH/RHA mass ratio, fusion temperature and H2O/NaOH-fused RHA mass ratio). The highest silica content was obtained using AF method at extraction conditions of NaOH/RHA mass ratio = 2, fusion temperature = 550 ºC, and H2O/NaOH-fused RHA mass ratio = 4, with silica concentration of 85,490 ppm. TEM, FTIR, and BET analyses revealed the synthesized KCC-1 has fibrous morphology with surface area of 220 m2/g. The synthesized KCC-1 showed good performance in removal of Pb(II) from aqueous solution (74%) and petrochemical wastewater (70%). The analyses of petrochemical wastewater revealed that the adsorption process using synthesized KCC-1 effectively decreased the concentration of COD (489 mg/L to 106 mg/L), BOD (56 mg/L to 34 mg/L) and Pb(II) (22.8 mg/L to 6.71 mg/L). This study affirmed that KCC-1 was successfully synthesized using RHA as silica precursor and applied as an efficient adsorbent for Pb(II) removal. 

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Keywords: Rice husk ash (RHA); Alkali fusion; Lead; Adsorption
Funding: Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Malaysia through Research University Grant (RDU170331) and Postgraduate Research Grants Scheme (PGRS180305)

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