Pd-Fe3O4/RGO: a Highly Active and Magnetically Recyclable Catalyst for Suzuki Cross Coupling Reaction using a Microfluidic Flow Reactor

*Hany A. Elazab -  Chemical Engineering Department, The British University in Egypt , BUE, Cairo, Egypt
Ali R. Siamaki -  Chemical Engineering Department, Virginia Commonwealth University , Richmond, VA, United States
B. Frank Gupton -  Chemical Engineering Department, Virginia Commonwealth University , Richmond, VA, USA. Chemistry Department, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, United States
M. Samy El-Shall -  Chemical Engineering Department, Virginia Commonwealth University , Richmond, VA, USA. Chemistry Department, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, United States
Received: 1 Nov 2018; Revised: 8 Mar 2019; Accepted: 13 Mar 2019; Published: 1 Dec 2019; Available online: 29 Jul 2019.
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Language: EN
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Abstract

There are several crucial issues that need to be addressed in the field of applied catalysis. These issues are not only related to harmful environmental impact but also include process safety concerns, mass and heat transfer limitations, selectivity, high pressure, optimizing reaction conditions, scale-up issues, reproducibility, process reliability, and catalyst deactivation and recovery. Many of these issues could be solved by adopting the concept of micro-reaction technology and flow chemistry in the applied catalysis field. A microwave assisted reduction technique has been used to prepare well dispersed, highly active Pd/Fe3O4 nanoparticles supported on reduced graphene oxide nanosheets (Pd-Fe3O4/RGO), which act as a unique catalyst for Suzuki cross coupling reactions due to the uniform dispersion of palladium nanoparticles throughout the surface of the magnetite - RGO support. The Pd-Fe3O4/RGO nanoparticles have been shown to exhibit extremely high catalytic activity for Suzuki cross coupling reactions under both batch and continuous reaction conditions. This paper reported a reliable method for Suzuki cross-coupling reaction of 4-bromobenzaldehyde using magnetically recyclable Pd/Fe3O4 nanoparticles supported on RGO nanosheets in a microfluidic-based high throughput flow reactor. Organic synthesis can be performed under high pressure and temperature by using a stainless steel micro tubular flow reactor under continuous flow reaction conditions. Optimizing the reaction conditions was performed via changing several parameters including temperature, pressure, and flow rate. Generally, a scalable flow technique by optimizing the reaction parameters under high-temperature and continuous reaction conditions could be successfully developed.

Keywords
Suzuki cross-coupling; 4-bromobenzaldehyde; Pd- Fe3O4/RGO; Flow reactor

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