skip to main content

Polyvinylpyrrolidone - Reduced Graphene Oxide - Pd Nanoparticles as an Efficient Nanocomposite for Catalysis Applications in Cross-Coupling Reactions

Hany A. Elazab1, 2, 3 scopus Tamer T. El-Idreesy4, 5, 6

11Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, The British University in Egypt, Egypt

2, El‑Shorouk City, Cairo, Egypt., Egypt

32Nanotechnology Research Centre (NTRC), the British University in Egypt, El-Sherouk City, Suez Desert Road, Cairo, 11837, Egypt

4 Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Egypt

5 , Giza 12613, Egypt., Egypt

6 Department of Chemistry, School of Sciences and Engineering, The American University in Cairo, New Cairo 11835, Egypt

View all affiliations
Received: 23 Oct 2018; Revised: 14 Mar 2019; Accepted: 20 Mar 2019; Published: 1 Dec 2019; Available online: 30 Sep 2019.
Open Access Copyright (c) 2019 Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis under

Citation Format:
Cover Image

This paper reported a scientific approach adopting microwave-assisted synthesis as a synthetic route for preparing highly active palladium nanoparticles stabilized by polyvinylpyrrolidone (Pd/PVP) and supported on reduced Graphene oxide (rGO) as a highly active catalyst used for Suzuki, Heck, and Sonogashira cross coupling reactions with remarkable turnover number (6500) and turnover frequency of 78000 h-1. Pd/PVP nanoparticles supported on reduced Graphene oxide nanosheets (Pd-PVP/rGO) showed an outstanding performance through high catalytic activity towards cross coupling reactions. A simple, reproducible, and reliable method was used to prepare this efficient catalyst using microwave irradiation synthetic conditions. The synthesis approach requires simultaneous reduction of palladium and in the presence of Gaphene oxide (GO) nanosheets using ethylene glycol as a solvent and also as a strong reducing agent. The highly active and recyclable catalyst has so many advantages including the use of mild reaction conditions, short reaction times in an environmentally benign solvent system. Moreover, the prepared catalyst could be recycled for up to five times with nearly the same high catalytic activity. Furthermore, the high catalytic activity and recyclability of the prepared catalyst are due to the strong catalyst-support interaction. The defect sites in the reduced Graphene oxide (rGO) act as nucleation centers that enable anchoring of both Pd/PVP nanoparticles and hence, minimize the possibility of agglomeration which leads to a severe decrease in the catalytic activity. Copyright © 2019 BCREC Group. All rights reserved


Fulltext View|Download
Keywords: Graphene; Cross-Coupling; Microwave–assisted synthesis; Heterogeneous catalysis; Catalyst recycling

Article Metrics:

Article Info
Section: Original Research Articles
Language : EN
Statistics: 1051 527
  1. Chen, S., Cheng, B., Ding, C. (2006). Synthesis and Characterization of Poly(vinyl pyrrolidone)/Reduced Graphene Oxide Nanocomposite. Journal of Macromolecular Science, Part B, 54(4): 481-491
  2. De Souza, A.L.F. (2008). Microwave- and ultrasound-assisted Suzuki Miyaura cross-coupling reactions catalyzed by Pd/PVP. Tetrahedron Letters, 49(24): 3895-3898
  3. Durap, F. (2009). New route to synthesis of PVP stabilized palladium(0) nanoclusters and their enhanced catalytic activity in Heck and Suzuki cross coupling reactions. Applied Organometallic Chemistry, 23(12): 498-503
  4. Gniewek, A. (2005). Pd-PVP colloid as catalyst for Heck and carbonylation reactions: TEM and XPS studies. Journal of Catalysis, 229(2): 332-343
  5. Ananikov, V.P. (2007). New approach for size- and shape-controlled preparation of pd nanoparticles with organic ligands. Synthesis and application in catalysis, Journal of the American Chemical Society, 129(23): 7252-7260
  6. Ashfield, L. (2007). Reductive car-bonylation - an efficient and practical catalytic route for the conversion of aryl halides to aldehydes. Organic Process Research & Development, 11(1): 39-43
  7. Guillen, E. (2009). Pd-activated carbon catalysts for hydrogenation and Suzuki reactions. Applied Catalysis A: General, 368(1-2): 113-120
  8. Karousis, N. (2008). Carbon nanotubes decorated with palladium nanoparticles: Synthesis, characterization, and catalytic activity. Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 112(35): 13463-13469
  9. Leonhardt, S.E.S. (2006). Chitosan as a support for heterogeneous Pd catalysts in liquid phase catalysis. Applied Catalysis A: General, 379(1-2): 30-37
  10. Li, Y. (2006). Palladium nanoparticle-graphene hybrids as active catalysts for the Suzuki reaction. Nano Research, 3(6): 429-437
  11. Elazab, H. (2014). Microwave-assisted synthesis of Pd nanoparticles supported on FeO, CoO, and Ni(OH) nanoplates and catalysis application for CO oxidation. Journal of Nanoparticle Research, 16(7): 1-11
  12. Elazab, H. (2017). The Effect of Graphene on Catalytic Performance of Palladium Nanoparticles Decorated with FeO, CoO, and Ni (OH): Potential Efficient Catalysts used for Suzuki Cross-Coupling. Catalysis Letters, 147(6): 1510-1522
  13. Elazab, H.A. (2017). The continuous synthesis of Pd supported on Fe3O4 nanoparticles: A highly effective and magnetic catalyst for CO oxidation. Green Processing and Synthesis, 6(4): 413-424
  14. Elazab, H.A., Sadek, M.A., El-Idreesy, T.T. (2018). Microwave-assisted synthesis of palladium nanoparticles supported on copper oxide in aqueous medium as an efficient catalyst for Suzuki cross-coupling reaction, Adsorption Science & Technology, 36(5-6): 1352-1365
  15. Elazab, H.A. (2015). Highly efficient and magnetically recyclable graphene-supported Pd/Fe3O4 nanoparticle catalysts for Suzuki and Heck cross-coupling reactions. Applied Catalysis A: General, 491: 58-69
  16. Mohsen, W., Sadek, M.A., Elazab, H. (2017). Green synthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles in aqueous medium as a potential efficient catalyst for catalysis applications. International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, 12(24): 14927-14930
  17. Bondioli, F. (2008). Synthesis of Zirconia Nanoparticles in a Continuous-Flow Microwave Reactor. Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 91(11): 3746-3748
  18. Fukui, K. (2012). Mechanism of synthesis of metallic oxide powder from aqueous metallic nitrate solution by microwave denitration method. Chemical Engineering Journal, 211: 1-8
  19. Glasnov, T.N., Findenig, S., Kappe, C.O. (2009). Heterogeneous versus Homogeneous Palladium Catalysts for Ligandless Mizoroki-Heck Reactions: A Comparison of Batch/Microwave and Continuous-Flow Processing. Chemistry - A European Journal, 15(4): 1001-1010
  20. Kirschning, A., Kupracz, L., Hartwig, J. (2012). New Synthetic Opportunities in Miniaturized Flow Reactors with Inductive Heating. Chemistry Letters, 41(6): 562-570
  21. Malewicz, M. (2009). Synthesis of Zinc Oxide Nanotiles by Wet Chemical Route Assisted by Microwave Heating. Electronics Technology, 15(3): 47-50
  22. Pourmortazavi, S.M. (2012). Synthesis, structure characterization and catalytic activity of nickel tungstate nanoparticles. Applied Surface Science, 263: 745-752
  23. Elazab, H.A., Sadek, M.A., El-Idreesy, T.T. (2018). Microwave-assisted synthesis of palladium nanoparticles supported on copper oxide in aqueous medium as an efficient catalyst for Suzuki cross-coupling reaction. Adsorption Science & Technology, 36(5-6): 1352-1365
  24. Yu, X.H. (2006). Research Progress of Nanostructured Materials for Heterogeneous Catalysis. Current Nanoscience, 7(4): 576-586
  25. Horikoshi, S. (2006). On the Generation of Hot-Spots by Microwave Electric and Magnetic Fields and Their Impact on a Microwave-Assisted Heterogeneous Reaction in the Presence of Metallic Pd Nanoparticles on an Activated Carbon Support. Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 115(46): 23030-23035
  26. Falcon, H. (2010). Large-scale synthesis of porous magnetic composites for catalytic applications, in Scientific Bases for the Preparation of Heterogeneous Catalysts: Proceedings of the 10th International Symposium, E.M. Gaigneaux, 347-350
  27. Chen, S.T. (2012). Synthesis of Pd/Fe3O4 Hybrid Nanocatalysts with Controllable Interface and Enhanced Catalytic Activities for CO Oxidation. Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 116(23): 12969-12976
  28. Moussa, S., Abdelsayed, V., El-Shall, M.S. (2011). Laser synthesis of Pt, Pd, CoO and Pd-CoO nanoparticle catalysts supported on graphene. Chemical Physics Letters, 510(4-6): 179-184
  29. Qiu, G.H. (2011). Microwave-Assisted Hydrothermal Synthesis of Nanosized alpha-Fe2O3 for Catalysts and Adsorbents. Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 115(40): 19626-19631
  30. Wang, H.L. (2010). Ni(OH)2 Nanoplates Grown on Graphene as Advanced Electrochemical Pseudocapacitor Materials. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 132(21): 7472-7477
  31. Wang, H.L. (2010). Nanocrystal Growth on Graphene with Various Degrees of Oxidation. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 132(10): 270-285
  32. Kalbasi, R.J., Negahdari, M. (2006). Synthesis and characterization of mesoporous poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) containing palladium nanoparticles as a novel heterogeneous organocatalyst for Heck reaction. Journal of Molecular Structure, 1063: 259-268
  33. Martins, D.d.L. (2009). Heck reactions catalyzed by Pd(0)-PVP nanoparticles under conventional and microwave heating. Applied Catalysis A: General, 408(1): 47-53
  34. Sheng, L. (2006). PVP-coated graphene oxide for selective determination of ochratoxin A via quenching fluorescence of free aptamer. Biosensors and Bioelectronics, 26(8): 3494-3499
  35. Zhang, J. (2010). Microwave-assisted synthesis of Pd nanoparticles and their catalysis application for Suzuki cross-coupling re-actions. Inorganic and Nano-Metal Chemistry, 47(5): 672-676
  36. Zhang, X. (2006). Polyvinyl pyrrolidone modified graphene oxide for improving the mechanical, thermal conductivity and solvent resistance properties of natural rubber. RSC Advances, 6(60): 54668-54678
  37. Zhang, Y. (2011). One-step synthesis of Polyvinylpyrrolidone-reduced graphene oxide-Pd nanoparticles for electrochemical sensing. Journal of Materials Science, 51(13): 6497-6508
  38. Nicolaou, K.C., Bulger, P.G., Sarlah, D. (2005). Palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions in total synthesis. Angewandte Chemie-International Edition, 44(29): 4442-4489
  39. Ashraf, B., Elazab, H. (2018). Preparation and characterization of decorative and heat insulating floor tiles for buildings roofs. International Journal of Engineering and Technology (UAE), 7(3): 1295-1298
  40. Elazab H.A. (2018). Laser vaporization and controlled condensation (LVCC) of graphene supported Pd/Fe3O4 nanoparticles as an efficient magnetic catalysts for Suzuki Cross Coupling. Biointerface Research in Applied Chemistry, 8(3): 3314-3318
  41. Elazab, H.A. (2018). The catalytic activity of copper oxide nanoparticles towards carbon monoxide oxidation catalysis: microwave assisted synthesis approach, Biointerface Research in Applied Chemistry, 8(3): p. 3278-3281
  42. Elazab, H.A., Radwan, M.A., El-Idreesy, T.T. (2018). Facile Microwave-Assisted Synthetic Approach to Palladium Nanoparticles Supported on Copper Oxide as an Efficient Catalyst for Heck and Sonogashira Cross-Coupling Reactions, International Journal of Nanoscience, 17(3): 1850032-1850040
  43. Ceylan, S. (2011). Inductive Heating with Magnetic Materials inside Flow Reactors. Chemistry - A European Journal, 17(6): 1884-1893
  44. Gupta, A. (2011). Synthesis and Ink-Jet Printing of Highly Luminescing Silicon Nanoparticles for Printable Electronics. Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, 11(6): 5028-5033
  45. Nishioka, M. (2011). Continuous synthesis of monodispersed silver nanoparticles using a homogeneous heating microwave reactor system. Nanoscale, 3(6): 2621-2626
  46. Shviro, M., Zitoun, D. (2013). Nickel nanocrystals: fast synthesis of cubes, pyramids and tetrapods. RSC Advances, 3(5): 1380-1387
  47. Beckert, M. (2015). Nitrogenated graphene and carbon nanomaterials by carbonization of polyfurfuryl alcohol in the presence of urea and dicyandiamide. Green Chemistry, 17(2): 1032-1037
  48. Kumar, S. (2015). Graphene, carbon nanotubes, zinc oxide and gold as elite nanomaterials for fabrication of biosensors for healthcare. Biosensors & Bioelectronics, 70: 498-503
  49. Neri, G. (2015). Engineering of carbon based nanomaterials by ring-opening reactions of a reactive azlactone graphene platform. Chemical Communications, 51(23): 4846-4849
  50. Mankarious, R.A., Elazab, H. (2017). Bulletproof vests/shields prepared from composite material based on strong polyamide fibers and epoxy resin. Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 12(10): 2697-2701
  51. Mostafa, A.R., Omar, H.A.-S., Elazab, H.A. (2017). Preparation of Hydrogel Based on Acryl Amide and Investigation of Different Factors Affecting Rate and Amount of Absorbed Water. Agricultural Sciences, 8(2): 11-18
  52. Radwan, M.A., Elazab, H.A. (2017). Mechanical characteristics for different
  53. composite materials based on commercial epoxy resins and different fillers, Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 12(5): 1179-1185
  54. Samir, N.S., Elazab, H.A. (2018). Preparation and characterization of bullet-proof vests based on polyamide fibers. International Journal of Engineering and Technology (UAE), 7(3): 1290-1294
  55. Tang, Y., Yang, Z. (2011). Trapping of metal atoms in the defects on graphene. Journal of Chemical Physics, 13(5): 22-32
  56. Wang, Q. (2012). Adsorption of oxygen-containing functional groups on free and supported graphene using point contact. Physical Review B, 85(8), 85-96
  57. Wu, S.X. (2012). Synthesis of Fe3O4 and Pt nanoparticles on reduced graphene oxide and their use as a recyclable catalyst. Nanoscale, 4(7): 2478-2483
  58. Xi, P.X. (2012). Surfactant free RGO/Pd nanocomposites as highly active heterogeneous catalysts for the hydrolytic dehydrogenation of ammonia borane for chemical hydrogen storage. Nanoscale, 4(18): 5597-5601
  59. Zhou, M. (2011). Adsorption of gas molecules on transition metal embedded graphene: a search for high-performance graphene-based catalysts and gas sensors. Nanotechnology, 22(38): 124-134
  60. Botas, C. (2013). Graphene materials with different structures prepared from the same graphite by the Hummers and Brodie methods. Carbon, 65: 156-164
  61. Hummers, W.S., Offeman, R.E. (1958). Preparation of Graphitic Oxide. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 80(6): 1339-1339
  62. Rovnick, N. (2002). Scottish anti-lawyer group mounts political challenge, Lawyer, 16(37): 4-14
  63. You, S. (2013). Effect of synthesis method on solvation and exfoliation of graphite oxide. Carbon, 52: 171-180
  64. Elazab, H.A. (2019). Optimization of the Catalytic Performance of Pd/Fe3O4 Nanoparticles Prepared via Microwave-assisted Synthesis for Pharmaceutical and Catalysis Applications, Biointerface Research in Applied Chemistry, 9(1): 3794-3799
  65. Elazab, H.A. (2019). Investigation of Microwave-assisted Synthesis of Palladium Nanoparticles Supported on Fe3O4 as an Efficient Recyclable Magnetic Catalysts for Suzuki Cross – Coupling, The Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering, 97(5): 225-234
  66. Zakaria, F., Radwan, M.A., Sadek, M.A., Elazab, H.A. (2018). Insulating material based on shredded used tires and inexpensive polymers for different roofs. International Journal of Engineering and Technology (UAE), 7(4):1983-1988
  67. Nasser, R., Radwan, M.A., Sadek, M.A., Elazab, H.A. (2018). Preparation of insulating material based on rice straw and inexpensive polymers for different roofs. International Journal of Engineering and Technology (UAE), 7(4): 1989-1994
  68. Ghobashy, M., Gadallah, M., El-Idreesy, T.T., Sadek, T.T., Elazab, H.A. (2018). Kinetic Study of Hydrolysis of Ethyl Acetate using Caustic Soda. International Journal of Engineering and Technology (UAE), 7(4): 1995-1999
  69. Radwan, M.A., Rashad, M.A., Sadek, M.A., Elazab, H.A. (2019). Synthesis, Characterization and Selected Application of Chitosan-Coated Magnetic Iron Oxide nanoparticles. Journal of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, 54(2): 303-310

Last update: 2021-06-18 07:49:56

No citation recorded.

Last update: 2021-06-18 07:49:56

  1. Follow-up and kinetic model selection of dinitro pentamethylene tetramine (DPT)

    Elazab H.A.. International Journal of Innovative Technology and Exploring Engineering, 8 (8), 2019.
  2. Novel adsorbent for industrial wastewater treatment applications

    Zakaria A.. International Journal of Innovative Technology and Exploring Engineering, 9 (1), 2019. doi: 10.35940/ijitee.L3223.119119
  3. Development of novel adsorbent for industrial waste water treatment

    Shehata H.M.. International Journal of Advanced Trends in Computer Science and Engineering, 9 (1), 2020. doi: 10.30534/ijatcse/2020/100912020
  4. Synthesis and characterization of PVP based catalysts for selected application in catalysis

    Elazab H.A.. Biointerface Research in Applied Chemistry, 10 (2), 2020. doi: 10.33263/BRIAC102.209216
  5. Synthesis and characterization of chitosan based catalyst for catalysis applications

    Elazab H.A.. International Journal of Advanced Trends in Computer Science and Engineering, 9 (1), 2020. doi: 10.30534/ijatcse/2020/71912020
  6. Equilibrium and kinetic study on the biosorption of trypan blue from aqueous solutions using avocado seed powder

    El-Idreesy T.T.. Biointerface Research in Applied Chemistry, 11 (3), 2021. doi: 10.33263/BRIAC113.1104211053
  7. Mathematica as an efficient tool to optimize the kinetic study of ethyl acetate hydrolysis

    El Dewaik M.H.. International Journal of Advanced Trends in Computer Science and Engineering, 9 (1), 2020. doi: 10.30534/ijatcse/2020/98912020
  8. The kinetic study of DPT using mathematica as an efficient optimization tool

    El Dewaik M.H.. International Journal of Advanced Trends in Computer Science and Engineering, 9 (4), 2020. doi: 10.30534/ijatcse/2020/376942020
  9. Effect of using nanoparticle-based diesel fuel on enhancement of performance and emissions of diesel engines

    Gadalla M.A.. Nanoscience and Nanotechnology - Asia, 11 (1), 2021. doi: 10.2174/2210681210666200219112202
  10. High octane number gasoline-ether blend

    Aboul-Fotouh T.M.. International Journal of Innovative Technology and Exploring Engineering, 8 (9), 2019. doi: 10.35940/ijitee.f3610.078919
  11. Physico-chemical characteristics of ethanol–diesel blend fuel

    Aboul-Fotouh T.M.. International Journal of Innovative Technology and Exploring Engineering, 8 (9), 2019. doi: 10.35940/ijitee.f3611.078919