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Polyvinylpyrrolidone - Reduced Graphene Oxide - Pd Nanoparticles as an Efficient Nanocomposite for Catalysis Applications in Cross-Coupling Reactions

1Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, The British University in Egypt, El‑Shorouk City, Cairo, Egypt

2Nanotechnology Research Centre (NTRC), the British University in Egypt, El-Sherouk City, Suez Desert Road, Cairo, 11837, Egypt

3Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza 12613, Egypt

4 Department of Chemistry, School of Sciences and Engineering, The American University in Cairo, New Cairo 11835, Egypt

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Received: 23 Oct 2018; Revised: 14 Mar 2019; Accepted: 20 Mar 2019; Available online: 30 Sep 2019; Published: 1 Dec 2019.
Editor(s): Istadi Istadi
Open Access Copyright (c) 2019 Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis under

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This paper reported a scientific approach adopting microwave-assisted synthesis as a synthetic route for preparing highly active palladium nanoparticles stabilized by polyvinylpyrrolidone (Pd/PVP) and supported on reduced Graphene oxide (rGO) as a highly active catalyst used for Suzuki, Heck, and Sonogashira cross coupling reactions with remarkable turnover number (6500) and turnover frequency of 78000 h-1. Pd/PVP nanoparticles supported on reduced Graphene oxide nanosheets (Pd-PVP/rGO) showed an outstanding performance through high catalytic activity towards cross coupling reactions. A simple, reproducible, and reliable method was used to prepare this efficient catalyst using microwave irradiation synthetic conditions. The synthesis approach requires simultaneous reduction of palladium and in the presence of Gaphene oxide (GO) nanosheets using ethylene glycol as a solvent and also as a strong reducing agent. The highly active and recyclable catalyst has so many advantages including the use of mild reaction conditions, short reaction times in an environmentally benign solvent system. Moreover, the prepared catalyst could be recycled for up to five times with nearly the same high catalytic activity. Furthermore, the high catalytic activity and recyclability of the prepared catalyst are due to the strong catalyst-support interaction. The defect sites in the reduced Graphene oxide (rGO) act as nucleation centers that enable anchoring of both Pd/PVP nanoparticles and hence, minimize the possibility of agglomeration which leads to a severe decrease in the catalytic activity. 

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Keywords: Graphene; Cross-Coupling; Microwave–assisted synthesis; Heterogeneous catalysis; Catalyst recycling

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