Ethanol Dehydrogenation to Acetaldehyde over Activated Carbons-Derived from Coffee Residue

Jeerati Ob-eye -  Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University , Center of Excellence on Catalysis and Catalytic Reaction Engineering, Bangkok 10330, Thailand
Piyasan Praserthdam -  Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University , Center of Excellence on Catalysis and Catalytic Reaction Engineering, Bangkok 10330, Thailand
*Bunjerd Jongsomjit -  Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University , Center of Excellence on Catalysis and Catalytic Reaction Engineering, Bangkok 10330, Thailand
Received: 2 Oct 2018; Revised: 9 Nov 2018; Accepted: 25 Nov 2018; Published: 1 Aug 2019; Available online: 30 Apr 2019.
Open Access Copyright (c) 2019 Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Citation Format:
Cover Image
Abstract

This study focuses on the production of acetaldehyde from ethanol by catalytic dehydrogenation using activated carbon catalysts derived from coffee ground residues and commercial activated carbon catalyst. For the synthesis of activated carbon catalysts, coffee ground residues were chemical activated with ZnCl2 (ratio 1:3) followed by different physical activation. All prepared catalysts were characterized with various techniques such as nitrogen physisorption (BET and BJH methods), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), temperature programmed desorption (CO2-TPD and NH3-TPD), X-ray Difraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The dehydrogenation of vaporized ethanol was performed to test the catalytic activity and product distribution. Testing catalytic activity by operated in a fixed-bed continuous flow micro-reactor at temperatures ranged from 250 to 400 °C. It was found that the AC-D catalyst (using calcination under carbon dioxide flow at 600 °C, 4 hours for physical activation) exhibited the highest catalytic activity, while all catalysts show high selectivity to acetaldehyde (more than 90%). Ethanol conversion apparently increased with increased reaction temperature. At 400 ºC, the AC-D catalyst gave the highest ethanol conversion of 47.9% and yielded 46.8% of acetaldehyde. The highest activity obtained from AC-D catalyst can be related to both Lewis acidity and Lewis basicity because the dehydrogenation of ethanol uses both Lewis acid and Lewis basic sites for this reaction. To investigate the stability of catalyst, the AC-D catalyst showed quite constant ethanol conversion for 10 h. Therefore, the synthesized activated carbon from coffee ground residues is promising to be used in dehydrogenation of ethanol. Copyright © 2019 BCREC Group. All rights reserved

 

Keywords
Ethanol Dehydrogenation; Acetaldehyde; Activated carbon; Coffee ground residues; Lewis acidity; Lewis basicity

Article Metrics:

  1. Zhou, M., Wang, W., Chi, M. (2009). Enhancement on the simultaneous removal of nitrate and organic pollutants from groundwater by a three-dimensional bio-electrochemical reactor. Bioresour. Technol., 100: 4662–4668.
  2. Yang, C., Liu, Y., Ma, C., Norton, M., Qiao, J. (2015). Preparing Desirable Activated Carbons from Agricultural Residues for Potential Uses in Water Treatment. Waste Biomass Valor., 6: 1029–1036.
  3. Bedia, J., Rosas, J.M., Rodriguez-Mirasol, J., Cordero, T. (2010). Pd supported on mesoporous activated carbons with high oxidation resistance as catalysts for toluene oxidation. Appl. Catal. B., 94: 8–18.
  4. Gu, J.Y., Li, K.X., Wang, J., He, H.W. (2010). Control growth of carbon nanofibers on Ni=activated carbon in a fluidized bed reactor. Microporous Mesoporous Mater., 131: 393–400.
  5. Guo, J., Lua, A.C. (2002). Microporous activated carbons prepared from palm shell by thermal activation and their application to sulfur dioxide adsorption. J. Colloid. Interface Sci., 251: 242–247.
  6. Maiti, S., Purakayastha, S., Ghosh, B. (2007). Production of low-cost carbon adsorbents from agricultural wastes and their impact on dye adsorption. Chem. Eng. Commun., 195: 386–403.
  7. Sekirifa, M.L., Hadj-Mahammed, M., Pallier, S., Baameur, L., Richard, D., Al-Dujaili, A.H. (2013). Preparation and characterization of an activated carbon from a date stones variety by physical activation with carbon dioxide. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, 99: 155–160.
  8. Niticharoenwong, B., Shotipruk, A., Mekasuwandumrong, O., Panpranot, J., Jongsomjit, B. (2013). Charasteristics of activated carbons derived from deoiled rice from rice bran residues. Chemical Engineering Communications, 200(10): 1309-1321.
  9. Almansa, C., Molina-Sabio, M., Rodriguez-Reinoso, F. (2004). Adsorption of methane into ZnCl2-activated carbon derived discs. Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, 76: 185-191.
  10. Azevedo, D.C.S., Araujo, J.C.S., Bastos-Neto, M., Torres, A.E.B., Jaguaribe, E.F., Cavalcante, C.L. (2007). Microporous activated carbon prepared from coconut shells using chemical activation with zinc chloride. Microporous Mesoporous Mater., 100: 361–364.
  11. Department of Business Development. (12 November 2017). Citing Internet sources URL http://www.dbd.go.th/download/document_file/Statisic/2559/T26/T26_201612.pdf.
  12. Boudrahem, F., Aissani-Benissad F., Ait-Amar, H. (2009). Batch sorption dynamics and equilibrium for the removal of lead ions from aqueous phase using activated carbon developed from coffee residue activated with zinc chloride. Journal of Environmental Management, 90: 3031–3039.
  13. Boudrahem, F., Soualah, A., Aissani-Benissad, F. (2011). Pb(II) and Cd(II) Removal from Aqueous Solutions Using Activated Carbon Developed from Coffee Residue Activated with Phosphoric Acid and Zinc Chloride. Journal of Chemical& Engineering Data, 56: 1946–1955.
  14. Ngaosuwan, K., Goodwin Jr, J.G., Prasertdham, P. (2016). A green sulfonated carbon-based catalyst derived from coffee residue for esterification. Renewable Energy, 86: 262-269.
  15. Laksaci, H., Khelifi, A., Trari, M., Addoun, A. (2017). Synthesis and characterization of microporous activated carbon from coffee grounds using potassium hydroxides. Journal of Cleaner Production, 147: 254-262.
  16. Goncalves, M., Guerreiro, M.C., Oliveira, L.C.A., Castro, C.S. (2013). A friendly environmental material: Iron oxide dispersed over activated carbon from coffee husk for organic pollutants removal. Journal of Environmental Management, 127: 206-211.
  17. Neramittagapong, A., Attaphaiboon, W., Neramittagapong, S. (2008). Acetaldehyde Production from Ethanol over Ni-Based Catalysts. Chiang Mai J. Sci., 35(1): 171 - 177.
  18. Freitasa, I.C., Damyanovab, S., Oliveirac, D.C., Marquesd, C.M.P., Buenoa, J.M.C. (2014). Effect of Cu content on the surface and catalytic properties of Cu/ZrO2 catalyst for ethanol dehydrogenation. Journal of Molecular Catalysis A: Chemical, 381: 26–37.
  19. Krutpijit, C., Jongsomjit, B. (2016). Catalytic Ethanol Dehydration over Different Acid-activated Montmorillonite Clays. Journal of Oleo Science, 65(4): 347-355.
  20. Gregg, S.J., Sing, K.S.W. (1982). Adsorption. London: Surface Area and Porosity, 2nd ed, Academic Press.
  21. Liou, T.H. (2004). Evolution of chemistry and morphology during the carbonization and combustion of rice husk. Carbon, 42: 785–794.
  22. Kitano, M., Arai, K., Kodama, A., Kousaka, T., Nakajima, K., Hayashi, S., Hara, M. (2009). Preparation of a Sulfonated Porous Carbon Catalyst with High Specific Surface Area. Catalysis Letters, 131(1-2): 242-249.
  23. Goncalves, M., Guerreiro, M.C., Oliveira, L.C.A, Solar, C., Nazarro, M., Sapag, K. (2013). Micro Mesoporous Activated Carbon from Coffee Husk as Biomass Waste for Environmental Applications. Waste Biomass Valor., 4: 395-400.
  24. Jasinska, J., Krzyzynska, B., Kozlowski, M. (2011). Influence of activated carbon modifications on their catalytic activity in methanol and ethanol conversion reactions. Central European Journal of Chemistry, 9(5): 925-931.
  25. Yusof, J.M., Salleh, M.A.M., Rashid, S.A., Ismail, I., Adam, S.N. (2014). Characterisation of carbon particles (CPs) derived from dry milked kenaf biochar. Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Special Issue on Applied Engineering and Sciences, 10: 125 - 131.
  26. Shafeeyan, M.S., Daud, W.M.A.W., Houshmand, A., Shamiri, A. (2010). A review on surface modification of activated carbon for carbon dioxide adsorption. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, 89: 143-151.
  27. Lua, A.C., Yang, T. (2004). Effect of activation temperature on the textural and chemical properties of potassium hydroxide activated carbon prepared from pistachio-nut shell. J. Colloid Interface Sci., 274(2): 594-601.
  28. Vikulov, K., Coluccia, S., Martra, G. (1993). Fourier-transform Infrared Spectroscopic Studies of the Adsorption of Ketene on Silica. J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans., 89(7): 1121-1125.
  29. American University of Beirut. (12 May 2018). Citing Internet sources URL https://staff.aub.edu.lb/~tg02/IR.pdf.
  30. Tsai, W.T., Chang, C.Y., Lin, M.C., Chien, S.F., Sun, H.F., Hsieh, M.F. (2001). Adsorption of acid dye onto activated carbons prepared from agricultural waste bagasse by ZnCl2 activation. Chemosphere, 45(1): 51-58.
  31. Carrasco-Marin, F., Mueden, A., Moreno-Castilla, C. (1998). Surface-Treated Activated Carbons as Catalysts for the Dehydration and Dehydrogenation Reactions of Ethanol. J. Phys. Chem. B., 102: 9229-9244.
  32. Perez-Cadenas, A.F., Maldonado-Hodar, F.J., Moreno-Castilla, C. (2003). On the nature of suface acid sites of chlorinated activated carbons. Carbon, 41: 473-478.
  33. Grunewald, G.C., Drago, R.S. (1991). Carbon Molecular Sieves as Catalysts and Catalyst Supports. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 113: 1636-1639.
  34. Szymaiski, G.S., Rychlicki, G., Terzyk, A.P. (1994). Catalytic conversion of ethanol on carbon catalysts. Carbon, 32(2): 265-271.
  35. Tveritinova, E.A., Zhitnev, Y.N., Chernyak, S.A., Arkhipova, E.A., Savilov, S.V., Lunin, V.V. (2017). Catalytic Conversion of Aliphatic Alcohols on Carbon Nanomaterials: The Roles of Structure and Surface Functional Groups. Russian Journal of Physical Chemistry A, 91: 429-435.
  36. Abdulwahab, M.I., Khamkeaw, A., Jongsomjit, B., Phisalaphong, M. (2017). Bacterial Cellulose Supported Alumina Catalyst for Ethanol Dehydration. Catal. Lett., 147: 2462-2472.
  37. Jones, F., Tran, H., Lindberg, D., Zhao, L., Hupa, M. (2013). Thermal Stability of Zinc Compounds. Energy and Fuels, 27: 5663-5669.